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The Mother of Jesus tells each one of us that only through the proclamation of the Dogma of Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate by the Holy Father can Our Lady bring true peace to the world. Let us obey her words and pray and petition for the Fifth Marian Dogma, as our troubled world today needs a historic and supernatural gift of peace through Our Lady’s intercession, more by the day. -Ed.
 
“Here I am again. The Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate is now standing before you. I have chosen this day—on this day the Lady will be crowned. Theologians and apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ, listen carefully. I have given you the explanation of the dogma. Work and ask for this dogma. You should petition the Holy Father for this dogma. The Lord Jesus Christ has done great things and will give all of you even more in this time, in this twentieth century.”
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When Mary’s soul left her body, the soft chanting of the angels seemed to withdraw slowly from the Cenacle. Peter and John must have perceived the glory of her soul in this moment of its liberation, for they both looked up, while the other apostles remained absorbed in prayer, with their heads bowed to the ground.

The Blessed Virgin’s body lay radiant with light, surrounded by her thousand invisible guardian angels. Her eyes were closed, and her hands were folded on her breast.

When at last all the apostles, disciples, and holy women present realized that their beloved spiritual Mother had indeed left them, their sorrow was so intense that only a special dispensation of divine power prevented some of them from dying of grief.

For some time they prayed and wept silently. Then they arose and sang a number of hymns in honor of their departed Queen.

Later Mary’s two devoted servant girls were told to anoint and wrap her body in a shroud with the greatest reverence and modesty. But when they entered her room, they were so blinded by the dazzling mystical light surrounding her couch that they could not even see her body. Highly excited, they hastened to notify the apostles. Peter and John then went into the room, perceived the bright light, and heard angels singing: “A Virgin before the Nativity, during the Nativity, and after the Nativity.” Kneeling down and praying for guidance, the two saints heard a Voice say: “Let not this virginal body be touched!”

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The following summary of the theology of Our Lady’s Queenship is presented by the late Father Juniper Carol, O.F.M., founder of the Mariological Society of America. – Ed.

(A) logical consequence of Mary’s unique mission is her role as universal Queen. Much attention has been devoted to this thesis in recent years, particularly in view of the repeated declarations of the magisterium. In our presentation of the doctrine we shall endeavor to avoid the two extremes sometimes encountered in this connec­tion, namely, exaggerations per excessum, and exaggera­tions per defectum. Our safest guide in the matter will be the magisterium itself. The treatment of this thesis may be conveniently divided into the following sections:

I. Explanation of the terms “king” and “queen” in general;
II. The meaning of “queenship” as applied to Mary;
III. The teaching of the magisterium;
IV. The biblical basis of the doctrine;
V. The voice of Tradition;
VI. The extent and nature of Mary’s Queenship.

 

I. Explanation of the Terms “King” and “Queen” in General. The words “king” and “queen” are not neces­sarily synonyms differing only in gender. In most cases, according to the usage universally accepted, they imply functions which are formally different. Since queenship is predicated only analogically of Mary and of earthly queens, and since the office of a queen is related to that of the king, we will first describe the latter in order better to understand the former, and then project these con­cepts on the specific case of Our Blessed Lady. (1)

A. Meaning of the Word “King.”

(1) In a purely metaphorical sense the word “king” connotes simply a certain primacy, prominence or excel­lence with reference to others of the same genus. In this sense the lion is often called the king of animals; Demos­thenes the king of orators, and so forth,

(2) In the proper sense a “king” is the man who, on his own authority, rules the members of an organized society and leads them to their common end, exercising his supreme dominion by means of the threefold power: legislative, judicial and coercive.

B. Meaning of the Word “Queen.”

(1) In a purely metaphorical sense the word “queen” connotes only a certain primacy, prominence or excellence with reference to others. Thus theology is called the queen of sciences; charity the queen of virtues, and so on.

(2) In the proper-absolute sense a queen is a woman who, on her own authority, rules the members of an organized society and leads them to their common end. A queen in this sense exercises her supreme dominion over her subjects by means of the threefold power: legislative, judicial, and coercive. Example: the Queen of Holland.

(3) In the proper-relative sense a queen is a woman who shares the dignity and office of a king only in her capacity as the king’s mother or as the king’s consort. Examples: the Queen-Mother of Denmark, the Queen-Consort of Sweden.

II. The Meaning of “Queenship” when Applied to Mary.

A. That Our Blessed Lady may be styled queen in a metaphorical sense is obvious. Because of her unsurpassed sanctity and her unique connection with the Hypostatic Order, she automatically holds the highest possible rank, primacy and dignity in God’s creation.

B. On the other hand, Mary is not queen in the proper-absolute sense of that word. The reason is that Mary is not a “female king,” a king of the feminine sex, such as the Queen of Holland or the Queen of England. Her authority over the subjects of her kingdom is not supreme and independent, but altogether sub­ordinate to that of her Son, the only Supreme Ruler.

C. However, Our Blessed Lady is rightly styled queen in the proper-relative sense of that word. She has a right to that title both as Mother of the King (Christ), and as His intimate consort in His mission of leading the mem­bers of that kingdom to their common end. Like earthly queens in their own sphere, Mary rules her spiritual sub­jects mostly through the efficacy of her influence over the heart of the King (insinuations, suggestions, power­ful intercession on behalf of the subjects). (2) But this is not all.

D. The term “queenship,” when applied to Mary, designates a reality far surpassing the queenly power just described. Mary’s Queenship is utterly unique; it is alto­gether peculiar and proper to this Queen. This becomes evident when we consider the specific manner in which she acquired her dominion, and the unique manner in which she exercises her royal powers.

1. Our Blessed Lady acquired her dominion over her subjects, not only by being the Mother of the King and His associate or consort in His mission of leading the members of His kingdom to their common end, but also by the fact that she formally and actively cooperated with the King in the work of Redemption. It was pre­cisely through the Redemption that Christ and Mary recaptured or conquered their kingdom from the unjust possession of Satan. Just as Christ is King because of the Hypostatic Union and the added title of conquest (i.e., as Redeemer), so Mary is Queen because of her divine Motherhood and her prerogative as Coredemptrix, In other words, she is Queen by divine relationship and by right of conquest.

2. As to the exercise of her Queenship, it may be said that Our Lady participates in the legislative power of her Son in a unique way. Here we must bear in mind that, in the supernatural kingdom of Christ, the law is primarily grace itself, and only secondarily the precepts of the Gospel. It is grace that prompts the subjects of this kingdom to conform to the Ruler’s will; it is mainly by grace that they are led to their common end and wel­fare. (3) Since Our Lady has a certain jurisdiction over the treasury of grace, and since she is the dispenser of all grace, it follows that she shares Christ’s legislative power. As to whether or not she shares also the judicial and executive powers, theologians have expressed differ­ent opinions. Some, like C. Dillenschneider, say that she does not; others, like G. M. Roschini, believe that she shares them indirectly, through her consent and her prayers. (4)

III. The Teaching of the Magisterium. Our Blessed Lady has been openly proclaimed “Queen” by at least fourteen popes between Gregory II (715-731) and Pius XII. (5) The classical text is found in the address of Pius XII to the faithful gathered in Fatima in 1946. His words are clear and categorical: “He, the Son of God, reflects on His heavenly Mother the glory, the majesty, and the dominion of His kingship; for, having been associated with the King of Martyrs in the ineffable work of human Redemption as Mother and cooperatrix, she remains forever associated with Him, with an almost unlimited power, in the dispensation of graces which flow from the Redemption. Jesus is King throughout all eternity by nature and by right of conquest; through Him, with Him, and subordinate to Him, Mary is Queen by grace, by divine relationship, by right of conquest, and by singular election. And her kingdom is as vast as that of her Son and God, since nothing is excluded from her dominion.” (6) These ideas were repeated, in a more elaborate manner, in his encyclical Ad coeli Reginam. (7) The Sacred Liturgy, too, both in the East and in the West, loudly and frequently proclaims Mary’s universal Queenship. (8) The feast in honor of this Marian prerogative is a significant indica­tion of the mind of the Church on this point. (9)

IV. The Biblical Basis for Mary’s Queenship. The most important biblical passage in support of Mary’s Queenship, understood in the proper sense, is the well-known Protoevangelium (Genesis 3:15). It is here that Our Lady is formally (though implicitly) introduced as Christ’s intimate associate in the work of man’s Redemp­tion. Since it was precisely the Redemption that gave Christ the title of King by right of conquest, it follows that Mary, too, in her capacity as Coredemptrix, shares Christ’s Kingship by right of conquest. (10)

In the New Testament we have two texts which are frequently adduced in support of the Catholic thesis. In Luke 1:30-35 the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she is to become the Mother of a King who will reign forever. In the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse Our Lady, symbolizing the Church, is portrayed with the moon under her feet and wearing a crown of twelve stars (v. 1-2), and as the Mother of a Son who will rule all nations; a Son who is taken up to God and to His throne (v. 7). (11)

There are several other Old Testament passages which have been frequently utilized in connection with Mary’s Queenship; for example: Psalm 45:10; 3 Kings 2:19; Esther 2:17 and 5:3. However, until it is sufficiently established that the Holy Spirit intended to convey the idea of Mary’s Queenship in these passages, we may use them only as adaptations, not as biblical arguments.
V. The Voice of Tradition. In the early centuries of the Church we do not find many explicit and clear statements to the effect that Mary is our Queen. (12) But from the eighth century on, the doctrine becomes increasingly evident in the writings of the Fathers. Thus St. Andrew of Crete (d. c, 727), St. Germain of Constantinople (d. 733), St. John Damascene (d. 749) and Eadmer of Canterbury (d. 1124) frequently style Mary “Queen of the universe,” “Queen of the human race,” etc. (13) In the Middle Ages one of the most articulate champions of Mary’s royal dominion was unquestionably St. Bernardine of Siena (d. 1444). (14) Beginning with the seventeenth century, we find not only the explicit and frequent state­ment of the doctrine, but also its theological elaboration. The most important names in this connection are F. Suárez, S.J. (d. 1617), C. de Vega, S.J. (d. 1672), and especially the Augustinian Bartholomew de los Rios (d. 1652). (15) In the twentieth century several Marian Con­gresses and an imposing number of bishops have openly endorsed the thesis while urging the Holy See to honor Mary’s Queenship with a liturgical feast similar to that of Christ the King. (16)

VI. Extent and Nature of Mary’s Queenship. The commonly received views on the extent and nature of Mary’s Queenship may be summarized as follows:

A. Our Blessed Lady’s dominion is as vast as that of her divine Son. Her Queenship is co-extensive with His Kingship. Hence, Mary is Queen of all rational creatures: men and angels. She is their Queen “by grace, by divine relationship, by right of conquest, and by singular elec­tion.” (17) The title “by right of conquest” may not be so readily understood by some with regard to the angels. Nevertheless, if we hold—as many do—that the angels, too, were redeemed by Christ (in the sense that they were preserved from falling, in view of His future merits), then He is their King also by right of conquest although in a more sublime way. In this hypothesis, something similar may be predicated of Our Blessed Lady, who participated so intimately in her Son’s redemptive role with regard to all others.

B. Our Lady’s Queenship is primarily of a spiritual nature; its principal sphere of action is the supernatural order, the order of grace. Secondarily, however, Mary’s Queenship is also temporal, even as Christ’s Kingship. Christ, not only as God but also as Man, has a direct, absolute and unlimited power over all civil rulers, all civil affairs. He has the absolute right of ownership and supreme dominion not only over this world of ours and everything in it, but also over the entire universe. With and under Christ, Mary is Queen over all these things. In a word, she is Queen of all creation. However, in order better to fulfill the purpose of the Incarnation, Our Blessed Savior and His Mother—while retaining the right to temporal power—voluntarily relinquished the exercise of that right.

The Late Fr. Juniper B. Carol, O.F.M., was a world-renowned authority on Mariology and the founder of the Mariological Society of America. This article was excerpted from Fundamentals of Mariology, Benziger Brothers, 1956.

Notes

(1) On this whole chapter, cf. the 4th volume of Marian Studies (1953) and the abundant literature indicated therein.
(2) Cf. A. Luis, C.SS.R., Prerogatives que implica la realeza de María, in Estudios Marianos, 1 (1942), 169-225, esp. 193-196.
(3) Summa Theologica, I-II, 106, 1, in corp.
(4) C. Dillenschneider, C.SS.R., Souveraineté de Marie, in Compte rendu du Congrès Marial de Boulogne s/M (Paris, 1938), 140; Roschini, Mariologia, 2, part 1, 426.
(5) Cf. E. Carroll, O.Carm., Our Lady’s Queenship in the Magisterium of the Church, in Marian Studies, 4 (1953), 29-81.
(6) AAS, 38 (1946), 266.
(7) AAS, 46 (1954), 625-640.
(8) Cf. K. B. Moore, O.Carm., The Queenship of the Blessed Virgin in the Liturgy of the Church, in Marian Studies, 3 (1952), 218-227.
(9) Cf. Pius XII’s institution of the Feast, originally to be universally celebrated on May 31, AAS, 46 (1954), 638. This feast is now celebrated on August 22. – Ed.
(10) Cf. Pius XII, in AAS, 38 (1946), 266.
(11) Cf. E. Smith, O.F.M., The Scriptural Basis for Mary’s Queenship, in Marian Studies, 4 (1953), 109-115.
(12) Cf. M. J. Donnelly, S.J., The Queenship of Mary During the Patristic Period, in Marian Studies, 4 (1953), 82 ff.; H. Barré, C.S.Sp., La royauté de Marie pendant les neuf premiers siècles, in Recherches de Science Religieuse, 29 (1939), 129-162; 303-334; A. Luis, C.SS.R., La realeza de María (Madrid, 1942), 32-42.
(13) St. Andrew, Orat. 3 in dormit. Deiparae; PG, 97, 1099; St. Ger­main, In praesent. Deiparae; PG, 98, 303; St. John Damascene, De fide orthodoxa, 1, 4, 14; PG, 94, 1158-1159; Eadmer of Canterbury, De excellentia Virginis Mariae, 11; PL, 159, 578.
(14) Sermo de gratia et gloria B. Virginis, cap. 6; opera omnia, 2 (Quaracchi, 1950), 377. Cf. likewise Ch. Sericoli, O.F.M., De regalitate B. M. Virginis juxta auctorum franciscalium doctrinam, in Antonianum, 30 (1955), 105-118; 221-244.
(15) Suárez, De mysteriis vitae Christi, disp. 3, sect. 5, n. 29; opera omnia, ed. Vivès, 19 (Paris, 1860), 44; disp. 22, sect. 2, n. 4; opera omnia, 19, 327; C. de Vega, Theologia Mariana, pal. 27 (Naples, 1866), 2, 346-364; B. de los Rios, De hierarchia mariana libri sex … (Antwerp, 1641). Cf. W. F. Hill, S.S., Our Lady’s Queenship in the Middle Ages and Modern Times, in Marian Studies, 4 (1953), 134-169.
(16) Cf. F. Schmidt, O.F.M.Cap., Mary’s Universal Queenship, in Mariology (Carol), 2, Ch. 13.
(17) Pius XII, in AAS, 38 (1946), 266.

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The following article is an excerpt from a chapter in the recently published Marian anthology, Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons, Seat of Wisdom Books, A Division of Queenship, 2008. Fifteen international Mariology experts contributed to the text. The book features a foreword by Archbishop Raymond L. Burke and has 17 chapters divided into four parts: 1. Mary in Scripture and the Early Church; 2. Marian Dogma; 3. Marian Doctrine; and 4. Marian Liturgy and Devotion. The book is now available from Queenship Publications. To obtain a copy, visit queenship.org.
Asst. Ed
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Introduction

 

Belief in Mary’s loving intercession was expressed in early Christian art, prayer and teaching. Whether it be in the many frescoes of the Roman catacombs depicting Mary in a prayerful position, or through early Church Fathers who portray Mary in heaven as praying for those on earth, or through other Fathers who address Mary and prayerfully seek her supplication, Mary’s intercessory role is clearly attested to in the first four centuries of the Church (1). As an example of how highly developed the understanding of Mary’s intercessory power could become in the early church, consider the prayer Sub Tuum Praesidium, which can be dated approximately to the mid-third century: “We fly to thy protection, O holy Mother of God, despise not our petitions in our necessities, but deliver us from all danger, O ever glorious and blessed Virgin.” From this we see evidence of early Christians confidently turning to Mary for protection in the face of the trials and dangers in life and asking her to intercede for them. It is not surprising that the Church throughout the centuries would refer to Mary as our “Advocate,” indicating her unique power of intercession, taking petitions from God’s people on earth and presenting them before her Son in heaven.

Closely related to Mary’s advocacy is her role as Queen—another Marian title found in the early Church and developed in the Tradition throughout the centuries. In fact, many magisterial teachings will note how Mary exercises her royal office through her role as Advocate, interceding on our behalf. This article will examine Mary’s role as Advocate and Queen, first by exploring an important Biblical foundation for these two titles: the queen mother, who held a royal office in the kingdom of David, and exercised her office especially through her role as advocate, interceding for the people of the kingdom. Next, we will outline how the Church’s Tradition and magisterial teaching has developed the understanding of Mary’s advocacy and queenship throughout the centuries. And finally, some theological issues regarding Mary’s role as Advocate and Queen will be addressed.

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The following is the second part of an article that ran in the past Mother of All Peoples Bi-Monthly Issue, taken from “Advocate and Queen” in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons (Queenship, 2008).

Advocate: Foundations in Tradition and Magisterium

 

Let us turn our attention to Mary’s advocacy role as it unfolds in Catholic Tradition. The early Church quickly perceived the important role Mary played in God’s redemptive plan. The role of Mary as New Eve beside her Son in the economy of salvation is found already in the writings of St. Justin Martyr, St. Irenaeus of Lyons and Tertullian (and possibly other earlier sources) (34). In Justin’s Dialogue with Trypho, Eve is the virgin who “conceived the word of the serpent” and “brought forth disobedience and death”; whereas Mary is the virgin filled with faith, who through her obedience to the angel’s annunciation conceived the child who destroys the serpent and delivers from death those who believe in him (35). In Irenaeus’ Against the Heresies, Mary is described as the cause of salvation (causa salutis) whose obedience untied “the knot of Eve’s disobedience” (36). And in Tertullian’s De Carne Christi, he describes how Eve believed the serpent and conceived the Devil’s word; whereas Mary believed the angel and conceived in her womb the Word of God (37). However, it is St. Irenaeus who is the first to bestow upon Mary the title “advocate” with this Eve-Mary parallel, calling Mary the “advocate of the virgin Eve”:

 

And if the former (Eve) did disobey God, yet the latter (Mary) was persuaded to be obedient to God, in order that the Virgin Mary might become the advocate (Latin: advocata) of the virgin Eve. And thus, as the human race fell into bondage to death by means of a virgin, so it is rescued by a Virgin; virginal disobedience having been balanced in the opposite scale by virginal obedience (38).



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Before the Prince of Peace was born, the Virgin of Nazareth was only the “Queen-designate,” but when she said “yes” to Gabriel and God, the Holy Spirit overshadowed her, she conceived, and then became the Queen of Peace. Nine months later, she gave birth to the Messiah. A first-century physician recorded the event: “In the countryside close by, there were shepherds who lived in the fields and took in turns to watch their flocks during the night. The angel of the Lord appeared to them and the glory of the Lord shone around them. They were terrified, but the angel said, ‘do not be afraid. Listen, I bring you news of great joy, a joy to be shared by the whole people. Today, in the town of David a savior has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord…’ and suddenly with the angel there was a throng of the heavenly host, praising God and singing: ‘Glory to God in the highest heaven and peace on earth to men of goodwill'” (Luke 2:8-14).

But the event was prophesied by Isaiah: “For there is a child born for us, a son is given to us and dominion is laid on his shoulders; and this is the name they gave him: ‘Wonder-Counselor, Mighty-God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace’ (Isaiah 9:5-6). Then in his farewell discourse to his disciples at the Last Supper, the Prince of Peace said: “Peace I bequeath to you, my own peace I give you, a peace the world cannot give, this is my gift to you” (John 14:27). Paul later summarized his Lord’s mission: “He came to bring the good news of peace, peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near at hand” (Ephesians 2:17).

Her Majesty’s mission is also one of peace. She not only gave birth to the Prince of Peace but she was at the foot of the Cross when he made peace between man and God. She appeared in the Rue du Bac in Paris in 1830 and in La Salette in 1846, and wept over the civil war which she prophesied would occur in France and other states in Europe. She appeared in Pontmain, France in 1874 towards the end of the Franco-Prussian war as the Lady of Hope, and saved the little prayerful town. She appeared in Fatima towards the end of World War I in 1917 as the Lady of the Rosary, in response to the prayers of Pope Benedict XV and the faithful, and promised that the war would end soon, but warned that another and more terrible war would come if men did not do as she said. World War II started in 1939. She appeared in Amsterdam towards the end of World War II in 1945 as the Mother of all Nations and also assured us that the war was shortly going to end, as she said, “thanks to the rosary.” She then appeared in 1981 in Medjugorje, Yugoslavia as the Queen of Peace warning us again about war. Yugoslavia paid her little heed except the parish of Medjugorje and its environs. War broke out in Yugoslavia in 1992. She also appeared in Kibeho in Africa in 1981 and warned of war and bloodshed. Her call for prayer and conversion was not heeded. It came to pass.

Little Jacinta, one of the visionaries of Fatima, said to Lucia before she died in 1920: “Make it known that the Sacred Heart of Jesus wishes that the Immaculate Heart of Mary be honored with him. People must ask for peace through the Immaculate Heart of Mary, for God has entrusted the peace of the world to her.” Indeed, when, according to Sr. Lucia, Pope John Paul II’s consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1984 was accepted by the Lord, within two months, almost to the day, Mikhail Gorbachev came into power and introduced two new ideologies in Russia, glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). It was the beginning of the fall of Communism and its promotions of wars.

But Russia is not as yet fully converted. This may await the definition of the fifth and final Marian dogma—Mary, Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate. And so, we should do as she says and pray the prayer of the Mother of all Nations, which she said is the prerequisite to the dogma: “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father, send now Your Spirit over the earth. Let the Holy Spirit live in the hearts of all nations that they may be preserved from degeneration, disaster and war. May the Lady of All Nations, (who once was Mary), be our Advocate. Amen.” Indeed, when the dogma, the last dogma in Marian history, is proclaimed, then more than ever before, all generations will call her blessed and she will be able to shower in abundance the graces of the Mediatrix, who advocates for us before the throne of God. She gained this privilege at the moment she said “yes” to his wedding invitation; that moment in time when she became the Coredemptrix and Queen of Peace.

In an address to the United Nations on September 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy said: “Unconditional war can no longer lead to unconditional victory. It can no longer serve to settle disputes. It can no longer be of concern to great powers alone. For a nuclear disaster, spread by winds and waters and fear, could well engulf the great and the small, the rich and the poor, the committed and the uncommitted alike. Mankind must put an end to war or war would put an end to mankind.”

Kofi Annan, the Secretary-General of the United Nations was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo on December 10, 2001. It was a significant and appropriate choice in this era of war. In his Nobel lecture he said: “We have entered the third millennium through a gate of fire. If today, after the horror of 11 September we see better, and we see further, we will realize that humanity is indivisible. New threats make no distinctions between races, nations or regions. A new insecurity has entered every mind, regardless of wealth or status… The 20th century was perhaps the deadliest in human history, devastated by innumerable conflicts, untold suffering, and unimaginable crimes. Time after time, a group or a nation inflicted extreme violence on another, often driven by irrational hatred and suspicion, or unbounded arrogance and thirst for power and resources. In response to these cataclysms, the leaders of the world came together at mid-century to unite the nations as never before. A forum was created, the United Nations, where all nations could join forces to affirm the dignity and worth of every person, and to secure peace and development for all peoples… In the twenty-first century I believe that the mission of the United Nations will be defined by a new, more profound, awareness of the sanctity and dignity of every human life, regardless of race or religion.”

A Reuter report stated that the day after he had urged the world in apocalyptic terms to pull back from the brink of further conflict, apparently signaling his anxiety over the Afghan war, on December 8, 2001, the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Pope John Paul II said in a speech in Rome: “Dark clouds are gathering on the horizon. Humanity, which greeted the dawning of the third millennium with hope, now feels weighted down by the threat of new shocking conflicts. World peace is at risk.”

Now, on August 6, 1981, the feast of the Transfiguration, Her Majesty identified herself to the children in Medjugorje: “I am the Queen of Peace” and in the beginning of April, 1982, she made this request: “I wish a feast of the Queen of Peace on the 25th of June, the anniversary of the first apparition. When the Holy Spirit comes, peace would be established. When that occurs everything would change around you. I am asking you to spread peace and love. Pray for peace because Satan wants to destroy the little peace you have.” It is to be noted that when she appeared in Amsterdam as the Lady or Mother of all Nations, the prayer which she composed for the world was also an appeal to the Holy Spirit: “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father, send now Your Spirit over the earth. Let the Holy Spirit live in the hearts of all nations that they may be preserved from degeneration, disaster and war.”

This Queen of Peace is the Mother of all Nations and also the Mother of Unity, and her longing is for a world of united nations; nations with her children all of one faith. Our Lady’s concern is therefore not confined to individuals. It embraces entire nations. World peace cannot be achieved unless the law of the Author of Peace is taken into account; until nations return to God and the reign of Christ is established among the nations. This is why she wishes to be called “in these times” the Mother of all Nations.

Because she gave birth to the Prince of Peace, I have selected all the messages which she has given to Maria Pavlovic-Lunetti of Medjugorje on each Christmas day over the past decade from 1990 to 2000: “Dear children, without peace you cannot experience the birth of the little Jesus, neither today nor in your daily lives. Therefore, pray to the Lord of Peace that he may protect you and that he may help you to comprehend the greatness and importance of peace in your heart. In this way, you shall be able to spread peace from your hearts throughout the whole world. Pray, because Satan wants to destroy my plans of peace. Be reconciled with one another and by means of your lives help peace to reign on the whole earth” (1990).

“Today in a special way I bring the little Jesus to you so that he may bless you with his blessings of peace and love. Give your love as an example to your families. You say that Christmas is a family feast, therefore, dear children, put God in the first place in your families so that he may give you peace and may protect you not only from war but also during peacetime, and protect you from every satanic attack. When God is with you, you have everything, but when you do not want him, you are then miserable and lost and you do not know whose side you are on. Therefore, little children, decide for God and then you will obtain everything” (1991).”

“Dear children, today is the day of peace, but throughout the whole world there is a great lack of peace. Therefore, I call on you to build up a new world of peace together with me by means of prayer. Without you I cannot do that, and I therefore call all of you, with my motherly love, and God will do the rest. Do not forget that your life does not belong to you, but it is a gift with which you must bring joy to others and lead them to eternal life” (1992). “Today I rejoice with little Jesus and it is my desire that the joy of Jesus may enter every heart. I give you a blessing with my son Jesus so that in every heart peace may reign. I love you, little children, and I want you to come closer to me through prayer. You talk and talk but do not pray, therefore, little children, decide for prayer. Only in this way would you be happy and God will give you what you ask of him” (1993).

“Today I am joyous with you and I pray with you for peace; peace in your hearts, peace in your families, peace in your desires and peace in the whole world. May the King of Peace bless you today and give you peace” (1994). “Jesus is the King of Peace and only he can give you the peace that you seek. I am with you and I am presenting you to Jesus in a special way now in this new time in which one should decide for him. This is the time of grace” (1995).

“I am your mother and I wish to reveal to you the God of love and the God of peace. I do not want your life to be one of sadness but that it be realized in everlasting joy, according to the Gospel. Only in this way will your life have a meaning” (1996). “I desire that each of you reflect and carry peace in your heart and say: ‘I want to put God in the first place in my life.’ In this way each of you would become holy” (1997). “In this Christmas joy I give you the blessing of little Jesus. May he fill you with his peace. Today, little children, you do not have peace and yet you yearn for it. That is why, with my son Jesus, I call you on this day to pray, pray, pray, because without prayer you cannot have joy or peace or (a future). Yearn for peace and seek it, for God is true peace” (1998).

“Dear children, I am giving you the possibility to decide for peace. Through your ‘yes’ for peace and your decision for God, a new possibility for peace is opened. Only in this way, little children, will this century be a time of peace and well-being for you. Therefore, put little newborn Jesus in your hearts” (1999). “Dear children, today when God has allowed me to be with you with little Jesus in my arms, I rejoice with you and give thanks to God for everything he has done in this Jubilee year. I thank God especially for all the vocations of those who said ‘yes’ to God completely. I bless you all with the blessing of the newborn Jesus. I pray for all of you for joy to be born in your hearts so that in joy, you too may carry the joy which I have today. In this child I bring to you the Savior of your hearts and the One who calls you to the holiness of life. Thank you for having responded to my call” (2000).

But she is truly the Queen of Peace. The United States entered World War II on December 8, 1942. It was an entry which won the war for the Allies. It was the feast of the Immaculate Conception. The war ended when Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945. It was on the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Japan signed another formal pact in San Francisco pertaining to her surrender. It was called the Second World War Peace Treaty. It was signed on September 8, 1951, the feast of the nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The signing of the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in Washington by Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan, abolishing medium range missiles in Europe took place on December 8, 1987, the feast of the Immaculate Conception. The Communist Party in Russia suddenly and dramatically collapsed without a shot being fired on August 22, 1991. It was on a very special feast day of Her Majesty, the feast of the Queenship of Mary! This was a fitting day for the triumph of Her Royal Highness. As Albert Einstein once said: “God does not play dice!” On December 8, 1991, the feast of the Immaculate Conception, began the Commonwealth of Republics and the end of the USSR. Twelve days later, Yeltsin of Russia met with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican. Then on December 25, 1991, Christmas Day, the communist flag was taken down for the last time over the Kremlin and one year later, on December 25, 1992, once more on Christmas Day, Communism was declared illegal in Russia.

But peace is not simply the absence of war, and world peace must begin with the inner peace of all peoples and all nations, the peace of God in our consciousness. And so, as the song says: “Let there be peace on earth and let it begin with me. Let there be peace on earth, the peace that was meant to be. With God as Our Father, brothers all are we. Let me walk with my brother in perfect harmony. Let peace begin with me, let this be the moment now. With every step I take, let this be my solemn vow. To take each moment and live each moment in peace eternally; let there be peace on earth and let it begin with me.”

When that moment comes, “The wolf shall lie with the lamb, the panther shall lie down with the kid; the calf and lion cub will feed together with a little child to lead them. The cow and the bear will make friends, their young shall lie down together. The lion shall eat hay like the ox. The baby shall play over the cobra’s hole; and into the vipers lair the young child puts his hand. They shall not hurt nor harm in all my holy mountain, for the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of Yahweh as the waters swell the sea” (Isaiah 11:6-9), and “nation will not lift sword against nation, there will be no more training for war” (Isaiah 2:4).

Then it will be “as it was in the beginning.” It is the everlasting wish of Jesus, the Prince of Peace, who has entrusted the peace of the world to his Mother and the Mother of all Nations, the Coredemptrix who gave birth to the Redeemer and King of all Nations—Her Majesty, the Queen of Peace.

Dr. Courtenay Bartholomew, M.D., is a scientist from Trinidad who is considered a leading international AIDS researcher. He has authored a series of mariological studies from a scientific perspective entitled, A Scientist Researches Mary. The above article was excerpted from Her Majesty Mary, Queen of Peace, End Times Prophecies and Warnings of Mary, Queenship, 2002.

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The Queenship of Mary

Published on August 22, 2011 by in Papal Excerpts

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Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam of Pope Pius XII

1. From the earliest ages of the Catholic Church a Christian people, whether in time of triumph or more especially in time of crisis, has addressed prayers of petition and hymns of praise and veneration to the Queen of Heaven. And never has that hope wavered which they placed in the Mother of the Divine King, Jesus Christ; nor has that faith ever failed by which we are taught that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with a mother’s solicitude over the entire world, just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen.

2. Following upon the frightful calamities which before Our very eyes have reduced flourishing cities, towns, and villages to ruins, We see to Our sorrow that many great moral evils are being spread abroad in what may be described as a violent flood. Occasionally We behold justice giving way; and, on the one hand and the other, the victory of the powers of corruption. The threat of this fearful crisis fills Us with a great anguish, and so with confidence We have recourse to Mary Our Queen, making known to her those sentiments of filial reverence which are not Ours alone, but which belong to all those who glory in the name of Christian.

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Neither human nor angelic tongue, says St. Epiphanius, can describe the honor and triumph with which Mary was welcomed in heaven on the glorious day of her Assumption. This alone can be said: that there never was and never shall be a greater, after the glory and triumph of her Son. No created mind, St. Bernard states, can grasp with what glory the Blessed Virgin entered into heaven, with what devotion she was welcomed by all the choirs of Angels, with what pleasure and delight she was received and embraced by her divine Son.

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God is so great and so far beyond our comprehension that he is literally ineffable. Hence, very often we are obliged to have recourse to pure metaphor when we wish to speak of him.

But when we say that God is a King, that is no metaphor. He is King in the highest and fullest sense of the word, more King than anyone ever was or will be on this earth. He is the King of kings who will summon before his tribunal all those who have ever been kings and demand from them an account of their kingship. The earth is his and the fullness thereof, and nothing can escape his direction.

 


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Mary, Queen of Apostles

Published on August 22, 2009 by in General Mariology

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The following article, “Mary, Queen of  Apostles,” is the title chapter excerpted from the book of the same name written by Rosalie Marie Levy. Here also is the preface from that book. –  Asst. Ed.

Preface

After God, the Blessed Virgin Mary occupies first place in the universe. In Heaven she is Queen of angels, archan­gels, and all the other glorious hierarchies. On earth she is Queen of patriarchs and prophets, Queen of apostles and martyrs, Queen of confessors and virgins, Queen of all saints. The Church of Christ has always proclaimed her praises. After the devotion to Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, there is none more dear to truly Christian hearts than that to His Mother.

The central devotion to Mary is the Divine Maternity, which is the source of her ineffable dignity and fullness of grace. The privileges of her Immaculate Conception, her freedom from all sin, her perpetual virginity, her assump­tion into Heaven, her special mediatorship between the Re­deemer and the redeemed, and her exclusive right to an exaltation of honor and love above that which may be of­fered to anyone other than her Son, arise in that maternity, because of the Divinity of her Son, Jesus Christ.

We must always remember that devotion to the Mother of God was publicly proclaimed by Jesus Himself when, nailed to the Cross, He pronounced the words: “Son, be­hold thy Mother; Mother, behold thy Son”. It is a bequest of His will and testament; one which He consecrated with His Blood.

Just as Mary stood at the foot of the Cross on the day our redemption was wrought, so has she continued to stand by the Church which Jesus established. Just as she prayed those ten days with the Apostles and was with them when they received the Holy Ghost, so has she always prayed with the Church. And through the centuries Mary has been regarded as the Queen of Apostles, the Help of Christians, the Tower of David.

Since Jesus came to us through Mary, she cannot be dissociated from Him; she cannot be ignored by those who profess to follow Christ. Therefore, Catholics venerate and honor the Blessed Virgin Mary because the Creator of all mankind honored and blessed her by choosing her to be the Mother of mankind’s Savior.

Prior to the so-called “Reformation” in the sixteenth century all Christians honored Mary. Since that time it has been charged that Catholics adore the Mother of Christ as they adore God; that they insult the Son by honoring His Mother. We honor Mary because she was honored by Him. We do not adore Mary, because adoration is due to God a-lone, but we do honor her. We cannot honor her too much, since she is the one whom God honored and blessed above all other creatures. However, let us keep the language of the early Church: “Let her be honored and esteemed; let Him be worshipped and adored”.

No mortal is able to portray, worthily and accurately the virtues of the Virgin Mary. Her majesty is too glorious; her virtues too grand.

Therefore, humbly prostrate at your feet, dear Mother, we acknowledge the inability of our intellect, and our inca­pacity to appreciate your greatness and your sanctity. We implore your motherly assistance in the stupendous task undertaken.

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Mary was not only the Mother, the inspiration, the consoler, the help of the first Apostles; she was their Queen. For thirty years she had lived with Jesus, and like a clear crystal she was filled with His light and holiness. Her very presence and example edified all who had the happiness to approach her. No one could converse with her or gaze upon her without feeling near to God. As she was helpful in the life of the Savior, so was she helpful in that of the Apostles during the public life of Christ and after His Ascension. She encouraged them in their efforts to spread the truths Jesus had taught and commanded them to preach in order to win souls for Him and His Kingdom.

Whilst the Apostles preached Jesus, the Light of the World, as the Way, the Truth, and the Life, it was Mary who brought Him forth. She is His Mother. But for Mary there would be no Gospel for the Apostles to preach; but for Mary there would be no Christ, Who sent the Apostles; but for Mary the world would never have seen any Apostle nor heard the words of salvation. How much greater then is Mary than the Apostles! The Apostles labored for the conversion of nations by word and deed; Mary encour­aged them in their work and assisted them by her prayers, which obtained for them God’s blessings. Yet, Mary was more important than the Apostles; she never intruded between them and her Divine Son. She was a gentle, humble Queen. In the same manner, as during Christ’s earthly life, she remained with the Apostles, always present, yet in the background.

It is the opinion of the most renowned Fathers of the Church that Mary is ever zealous to enkindle the light of faith in the hearts of all who sit “in darkness and in the shadow of death”, and to save their souls from perdition. St. Augustine and St. Ambrose praise Mary as the teacher of nations; St. Cyril says that through her the Gentiles were rescued from idolatry, and the Church herself ex­claims: “Rejoice, O Virgin Mary, who alone hast destroy­ed all heresies throughout the world”. Many countries, such as Poland, Hungary, France, and the United States, owe the gift of Faith especially to the Blessed Virgin, and she is venerated as their Patroness. Thus Mary is the Queen of Apostles on account of her Apostolic zeal.

Mary is also Queen of Apostles because, beginning with the Apostles themselves, all apostolic men have loved and honored her as their Queen. After the Ascension of Jesus Mary became Queen of the Apostles, their “stay and their prop”. She encouraged them in their Apostolic labors, and comforted them in their persecutions and sufferings.

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Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam of Pope Pius XII

1. From the earliest ages of the Catholic Church a Christian people, whether in time of triumph or more especially in time of crisis, has addressed prayers of petition and hymns of praise and veneration to the Queen of Heaven. And never has that hope wavered which they placed in the Mother of the Divine King, Jesus Christ; nor has that faith ever failed by which we are taught that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with a mother’s solicitude over the entire world, just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen.

2. Following upon the frightful calamities which before Our very eyes have reduced flourishing cities, towns, and villages to ruins, We see to Our sorrow that many great moral evils are being spread abroad in what may be described as a violent flood. Occasionally We behold justice giving way; and, on the one hand and the other, the victory of the powers of corruption. The threat of this fearful crisis fills Us with a great anguish, and so with confidence We have recourse to Mary Our Queen, making known to her those sentiments of filial reverence which are not Ours alone, but which belong to all those who glory in the name of Christian.

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This article will begin by examining the titles of Queen Mother and Advocate found in the Old Testament Scriptures and most importantly, the Kingdom of David. It will then focus on the Queen in the words of God’s messengers. Next we will examine her roles in relation to the New Covenant and our final goal will be to demonstrate her Queenship and Advocacy in light of Sacred Tradition and the magisterial documents.

I wish to begin with a statement from an encyclical of Pius XII, Ad Caeli Reginam:

Already from the earliest centuries of the Catholic Church, the Christian people have addressed suppliant prayers and hymns of praise and veneration to the Queen of Heaven, both when they had reason to rejoice and particularly when they were beset by serious troubles. The hope placed in the Mother of the Divine King, Jesus Christ, has never failed. There has never been a weakening of that faith by which we are taught that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with her maternal heart over the entire world, just as she is crowned with the diadem of royal glory in heavenly blessedness. {footnote} Pius XII, Ad Caeli Reginam, p. 1 {/footnote}

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Daughter Zion and the Queen Mother from Mother of All Peoples on Vimeo.

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The Queen of Peace

Published on April 12, 2008 by in Papal Excerpts

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The month of May is almost here, a month which the piety of the faithful has long dedicated to Mary, the Mother of God. Our heart rejoices at the thought of the moving tribute of faith and love which will soon be paid to the Queen of Heaven in every corner of the earth. For this is the month during which Christians, in their churches and their homes, offer the Virgin Mother more fervent and loving acts of homage and veneration; and it is the month in which a greater abundance of God’s merciful gifts comes down to us from our Mother’s throne.

We are delighted and consoled by this pious custom associated with the month of May, which pays honor to the Blessed Virgin and brings such rich benefits to the Christian people. Since Mary is rightly to be regarded as the way by which we are led to Christ, the person who encounters Mary cannot help but encounter Christ likewise. For what other reason do we continually turn to Mary except to seek the Christ in her arms, to seek our Savior in her, through her, and with her? To Him men are to turn amid the anxieties and perils of this world, urged on by duty and driven by the compelling needs of their heart, to find a haven of salvation, a transcendent fountain of life.

A Time for Special Prayers

Because the month of May is a powerful incentive to more frequent and fervent prayers, and because our petitions more readily find access to her compassionate heart during it, it has been a favorite custom of Our predecessors to choose this month, dedicated to Mary, for urging the Christian people to offer up public prayers whenever the needs of the Church demanded it or some grave crisis threatened the human race. This year, Venerable Brothers, We in turn feel compelled to call for such prayers from the whole Catholic world. Looking at the present needs of the Church and the status of world peace, We have sound reasons to believe that the present hour is especially grave and that a plea for concerted prayer on the part of all Christians is a matter of top priority…. [...]

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During her December 8, 1976, Eucharistic Experience linked with an October dream (ecclesiastical approval, May 31, 2002, see “Church Approves Apparitions of the Lady of All Nations” article), visionary Ida Peerdeman sees in St. Peter’s Square a large net in need of repair filled with fish. Beside the rock of Cephas rises the Lady of All Nations, again represented as a tall ivory tower. – Asst. Ed.

In the night of October 29 to 30, 1976

This night I dreamt as follows. I was standing in the centre of St. Peter’s Square in Rome and I saw two fishing nets hanging all around. They hung on stakes in order to dry and were full of holes and gaps. Here and there in a hole a fish was still hanging, trying to get out. Where I was standing, there was a rock, and big dark clouds were hanging over it. From there I heard “the Voice” complaining:

“Cephas, My Cephas, look what has happened.”

I had to look at these nets and over each fishing net I saw a mitre hovering, some bigger, some smaller. And I felt myself caught within all those nets. Again I heard “the Voice” complaining: [...]

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Mary’s Universal Queenship comes home to us in a more concrete form if we consider its different aspects as presented in the Litany of Loreto: Queen of angels, of patriarchs, of prophets, of apostles, of martyrs, of confessors, of virgins, of all the saints, of peace.

Queen of Angels

Mary is Queen of the angels since her mission is higher than theirs. They are but servants, whereas she is the Mother of God. She is as much above them as the word “mother” surpasses the word “servant.” She alone with the Father can say to Jesus: “Thou art my Son, I have begotten thee.”

She is higher than the angels also by her fullness of grace and glory, which surpasses that of all the angels united. She is purer than they, for she has received purity for others as well as for herself. She was more perfect than they and more prompt in her obedience to God’s commandments and in following His counsels. By her co-operation in the redemption she merited de congruo for the angels themselves the accidental graces by which they help us to save our souls and the joy which they experience in doing so. [...]

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Throughout history, Christians have referred to the Blessed Virgin Mary by many different titles. She is the Ark of the New Covenant, the New Eve, the Mystical Rose, the Seat of Wisdom, and Helper of Christians to name a few. Yet, “(o)f the many titles bestowed upon Our Blessed Lady, that of Queen most aptly expresses our sentiments of ardent loyalty and filial devotion towards the Mother of God.” (1) In this article, through the intercession and maternal guidance of Our Lady, Queen of Heaven and earth, I plan to explain exactly what it does and does not mean to call Mary “queen.” We will also explore the foundations of the term found in Sacred Scripture and the history of its usage in Tradition and magisterial teachings, with the hope that what is presented will contribute to the recognition by all Christians of the Blessed Virgin as our True Queen and Mother.

Because the Second Vatican Council’s Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium, “exhorts theologians and preachers of the divine Word to abstain zealously both from all gross exaggerations as well as from petty narrow-mindedness in considering the singular dignity of the Mother of God” (2) it is important to define what we mean in calling Mary “Queen.” Like all of the theological titles for the Blessed Virgin, Mary is called Queen by virtue of the direct relationship she possesses with her Son, Jesus Christ. She is Queen because she is the Mother of God-made-man. The Incarnate God, Jesus Christ is the Seed of Victory prophesied in the protoevangelium. As Christ is the Redeemer who crushes the head of the serpent, Mary is the co-redemptrix who is intimately connected with the crushing of the serpent’s head. Hence, Pius XII reminds us that “(t)he most Blessed Virgin Mary is to be called Queen not only by reason of her divine maternity, but also because by the will of God she has had an outstanding part in the work of our eternal salvation.” (3) [...]

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Queen of Peace

Published on August 18, 2006 by in Papal Excerpts

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The following two excerpts from the early twentieth century pontiff, Pope Benedict XV, a pope renowned for his great Marian love and his untiring efforts for peace and reconciliation, reveal his extraordinary love for Our Lady, his articulation of her role as Queen of Peace and Mediatrix of all graces, and the Pope’s belief in her intercessory power to bring peace during a troubled time for the world (World War I). Let us invoke this former pontiff for the pontificate of His Holiness, Pope Benedict XVI, to follow the pattern of his predecessor of name in calling upon Our Lady, Queen of Peace, for the spiritual and global peace so needed in our present day. – Ed.

Mediatrix of Peace

The scene of Jesus’ birth is complete through the presence of Mary. The faith of her believers and her children’s love consider her not only God’s Mother, but also the Mediatrix with God.

Mother of the Prince of peace, Mediatrix between rebellious man and the merciful God, she is the dawn of peace shining in the darkness of a world out of joint; she never ceases to implore her Son for peace although His hour is not yet come (John 2:4); she always intervenes on behalf of sorrowing humanity in the hour of danger; today she who is the mother of many orphans and our advocate in this tremendous catastrophe will most quickly hear our prayers. [...]

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The kingship of Christ is the official teaching of the Church and is honored in the Liturgy. The queenship of Mary is parallel to and subordinate to Christ’s office. (1) It too has been officially taught, in Pius XII’s Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam, which gave doctrinal substance to an idea that recurred frequently in church teaching, notably in the same Pope’s address to pilgrims at Fatima, 13 May, 1946. The queenship has a feast which is retained in the reformed Liturgy.

The Pope reproduces texts from the Fathers, Doctors and Popes on the queenship, and also draws on the Liturgy and popular prayers for similar supporting quotations. The testimonies are cited from east and west; the witness of iconography since the Council of Ephesus is mentioned. [...]

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Why is she so called?—she who never had any blow, or wound, or other injury to her consecrated person. How can she be exalted over those whose bodies suffered the most ruthless violence and the keenest torments for our Lord’s sake? She is, indeed, Queen of all Saints, of those who “walk with Christ in white, for they are worthy”; but how of those “who were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held”?

To answer this question, it must be recollected that the pains of the soul may be as fierce as those of the body. Bad men who are now in hell, and the elect of God who are in purgatory, are suffering only in their souls, for their bodies are still in the dust; yet how severe is that suffering! And perhaps most people who have lived long can bear witness in their own persons to a sharpness of distress which was like a sword cutting them, to a weight and force of sorrow which seemed to throw them down, though bodily pain there was none.

What an overwhelming horror it must have been for the Blessed Mary to witness the Passion and the Crucifixion of her Son! Her anguish was, as holy Simeon had announced to her, at the time of her Son’s presentation in the Temple, a sword piercing her soul. If our Lord himself could not bear the prospect of what was before him, and was covered at the thought of it with a bloody sweat, his soul thus acting upon his body, does not this show how great mental pain can be? And would it have been a thing to wonder at if Mary’s head and heart had given way as she stood under his cross?

Thus is she most truly the Queen of Martyrs.

This article was excerpted from Meditations and Devotions, pp. 47-48, as found in Mystical Rose, ed. Joseph Regina, Scepter, 1996.

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Hail The Queen Mother

Published on January 22, 2005 by in General Mariology

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Israel’s monarchy arose in very specific historic circumstances in a particular geographic region.

In the ancient Near East, most nations were monarchies ruled by a king. In addition, most cultures practiced polygamy; so a given king often had several wives. This posed problems. First, whom should the people honor as queen? But more important, whose son should receive the right of succession to the throne?

In most Near Eastern cultures, these twin problems were resolved by a single custom. The woman ordinarily honored as queen was not the wife of the king, but the mother of the king. There was an element of justice to the practice, since it was often the persuasive (or seductive) power of the mother that won the throne for her son. The custom also served as a stabilizing factor in national cultures. As wife of the former king and mother to the present king, the queen mother embodied the continuity of dynastic succession. [...]

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The Crown

Published on December 25, 2004 by in Christian Culture, December 2004

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In the cold dark barren land,
stars and moon and the great star
that has appeared,
puzzling the wise and the low,
scatter diamonds upon the blood soaked snow.
The grieving earth awakes to its first groaning;
and men, grown weary of toil and fear,
cynical of love and despairing of truth,
bearing lamentations as if these were their only
birthright, look up at last. [...]

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“God in these times wishes the Blessed Mother to be more known, loved, and honored than she has ever been . . . They will perceive the splendors of this Queen, will consecrate themselves entirely to her service as subjects and slaves of love. They will experience her motherly kindness and affection for her children. They will love her tenderly and will appreciate how full of compassion she is and how much they stand in need of her help.  In all circumstances they will have recourse to her as their advocate and mediatrix with Jesus Christ. They will see clearly that she is the safest, easiest, shortest and most perfect way of approaching Jesus and will surrender themselves to her, body and soul, without reserve in order to belong entirely to Jesus” (St. Louis Marie Grignion De Montfort, True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, n. 55). [...]

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