It must be stated immediately and emphatically that this English publication of the first “schema” or draft intended for the Second Vatican Council’s treatment of the Blessed Virgin Mary is in no way intended to imply that this original draft should have been the final draft, that is, to speak against the Council’s final draft which became Chapter 8 of Lumen Gentium. An ecumenical council such as Vatican II which is confirmed by the Roman Pontiff is infallibly protected from error by the power of the Holy Spirit, and this key Catholic truth applies directly to the final and fruitful formulation of the Council’s Lumen Gentium Chapter 8 treatment on the Mother of God.

What then is the purpose of publishing a new English translation of the original Latin schema on Mary during this 50th year anniversary celebration of the Second Vatican Council?  It is precisely to manifest the rich mariological understanding and acceptance of Our Lady’s roles in redemption and mediation which were standardly accepted, universally taught, and papally approved within the Church at the time of the Council.

This original Marian schema was prepared by theologians under the guidance of the Holy Office (now the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith) and was submitted to Bl. Pope John XXIII for his approval before it would then be circulated among the Fathers of Vatican II. Bl. John XXIII granted his direct papal approval of this Marian schema on November 10, 1962.  The schema was then distributed to the Council Fathers on November 23, 1962.

Due to the historic conciliar vote of October 29, 1963, where it was decided by 17 votes to include the treatment on Mary into the document on the Church rather than an independent document on Mary, this Marian schema was then re-written from the form of an independent document into that of a chapter of another document, as well as receiving significant content changes in the process by a theological committee.  After its eventual re-issuing to the Council Fathers, and receiving more revisions, both by theological committees and due to interventions by Council Fathers, the final draft of what became Chapter 8I of Lumen Gentium was approved on October 29, 1964.

Attached to the original distribution of the First Schema to the Council Fathers on November 23, 1962, was a “Praenotanda” notice, or notes of preliminary explanation that had been added to the first Marian schema by a subcommittee of theologians.

The Praenotanda stated unequivocally that there are no opinions contained in this first Marian schema which have not already been proposed by the Supreme Pontiffs in previous papal statements.II  Everything, therefore, contained in the following schema is already a mariological truth proposed as doctrinally accurate by the papal magisterium. The generous number of   footnotes from papal documents throughout the first schema further confirms its ordinary magisterial character.

The schema’s teaching on Mary’s participation in the Redemption, as well as her subsequent role in the distribution of graces as Mediatrix of all graces, is extremely rich.  Apart from the profound teaching of Marian coredemption and mediation in the body of the schema itself, two footnotes are  of particular interest to the titles of Mary as “Co-redemptrix” and “Mediatrix of all graces.”

Footnote 16, which offers extended explanation for the legitimate titles of Mary as used by the Church and by the Roman pontiffs, offers the following historical and theological defense of the Co-redemptrix title:

In Christian antiquity it was customary to refer to Mary as Eve, a title which seems to be taken from the principle of “re-circulation” or parallelism between Mary and Eve. Witness in this regard is found already in St. Justin’s Dialogue with Trypho: “And since we read that he is the Son of God… and made man from the Virgin, so that in the way that the disobedience spawned by the serpent took its beginning, it would receive its dissolution in the say way … .” Based on the same principle, St. Irenaeus (Against Heresies) explicitly calls Mary the cause of salvation for the entire human race. After the Council of Ephesus, the very title of Mediatrix, or as the Greeks say, Mesites or Mesetria, is attributed to Mary. In a work of a quite ancient author (some say of the 5th century but certainly before the 8th century) we read: “For she is the Mediatrix of heaven and earth, who naturally accomplishes their union.” This title became more common day by day, as can be seen in the writings of St. Andrew of Crete, St. Germanus of Constantinople, St. John Damascene, etc. Nor are there lacking Fathers who greet Mary as “Helper of the Redeemer” or “Mother of the living” in reference to Gn 3:15.

 

All these have been further developed by theologians and Supreme Pontiffs, and a nomenclature was created in which Mary is at different times called the Spiritual Mother of Men. the Queen of Heaven and Earth, and at other times the New Eve, the Mediatrix and Dispenser of All Graces, and even, in fact, the Co-redemptrix. With regard to the title “Queen”, cf. Note 14; with regard to the title Spiritual Mother, cf. Note 12. With regard to the title, Co-redemptrix”, and “Companion of Christ the Redeemer”, some explanations need to be added here:

 

The title Redemptrix occurs already in the 10th century: “Holy Redemptrix of the world, pray for us.” When this title came into use in the 15th and 16th centuries and the immediate co-operation of the Blessed Virgin in the work of our redemption was already perceived, “con” [cum] was added to “redemptrix,” so that the Mother of God was called “corredemptrix,” [Co-redemptrix] whereas Christ continued to be called “Redemptor” [Redeemer]. Accordingly, from the 17th century onward, the title of “Co-redemptrix” was in common use not only in works geared to piety and devotion, but also in very many theological treatises [cf. Carol J., The Co-redemption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Rome, 1950, p. 482]

 

With regard to the Roman Pontiffs, the word occurs in certain texts of St. Pius X and Pius XI in contexts of lesser importance. Pius XII purposely wished to avoid this expression by frequently using formulas such as “Companion of the Redeemer,” “Eminent companion of the Redeemer,” “Loving companion of the Redeemer,” “Companion in the work of the Divine Redeemer.”

 

The cooperation of Mary with Jesus in the economy of our salvation is very, very often extolled by Supreme Pontiffs. Leo XIII: “the great Mother of God and likewise the companion in repairing the human race.” Pius XI: “The Redeemer was not able, due to the necessity of the work, to not associate his Mother with his work, and that is the reason why we invoke her with the title of Co-redemptrix.” Pius XII: “Mary, in procuring spiritual salvation with Jesus Christ, from the very beginning of salvation, was associated by God’s will…”(Footnote 16).

In specific reference to her role as Mediatrix of all graces, footnote 17 concerning Mary’s universal mediation provides both a strong articulation of the Mediatrix role, and acknowledges tthe fact that before the beginning of Vatican II, over 500 Council Fathers from the world over had requested a solemn papal definition of some aspect of Mary’s maternal mediation to take place curing the Council itself:

In carefully surveying the Appendix of Volume II in preparation of the Acts and Documents for Vatican Council II (pp. 131-140), it is apparent that more than 500 bishops and prelates from all five parts of the world requested a solemn definition of some social office of the Blessed Virgin, and especially her universal mediation with regard to graces. As P. De Aldama, S.J., writes (p.419): “That the Blessed Virgin Mary is a mediatrix in some true sense, and is such with a title by all means special above other saints, is de fide from the ordinary magisterium. That the title of mediatrix can be justly used, is certain from repeated use by the Roman Pontiffs and in the liturgy; there is no room for doubt here.” And again he writes (p. 427): “That the mediation of Mary with regard to dispersing graces is in every way special and far exceeds the mediation of the saints, seems to be de fide from the ordinary magisterium. That it refers to all graces in a general way, is at least Catholic doctrine.” Other approved authors, especially Popes, speak in much the same way.

 

Pius IX: “The most powerful mediatrix in the entire world with her Only-begotten Son”
Leo XIII: “The mediatrix of our peace with God and the administrator of heavenly graces”
Leo XIII: “Our Lady, the reparatrix of the entire world, the procurer of the gifts of God.”
Leo XIII: “She is the one of whom was born Jesus, i.e. his Mother, and for this reason she was worthy and most acceptable to be the Mediatrix for the Mediator.”
Leo XIII: “So the most powerful Virgin Mother, who formerly cooperated in charity so that the faithful might be born in the Church, is even now the means and mediatrix of our salvation.”
Pius X: “From this sharing of sorrows and will between Mary and Christ, she merited to very worthily become the Reparatrix of a ruined world and, accordingly, also the dispenser of all gifts which Jesus gained for us by his death and blood.”

 

At times the Most Blessed Virgin is called the Mediatrix to the Mediator, Christ and, at other times, to God. In the Constitution both formulas are used. It is said that she intercedes through Christ, in conformity with that declaration of the Council of Trent regarding the intercession of saints: “It is good and beneficial to earnestly invoke the saints for the sake of requesting blessings from God through his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord, who alone is our Redeemer and Savior.” Hence, the Blessed Virgin and other saints intercede for us mediately, namely, through Christ. That is the reason why the Church closes all its prayers with:  Through Our Lord Jesus Christ…

The Praenotanda to the First Schema provided further commentary regarding the Co-redemptrix title.  In contrasting emphasis to the schema itself approved by Bl. John XXIII, the theological subcommittee offere this explanatory note regarding titles used by the popes such as “Co-redemptrix of the human race,” which it states are “in themselves absolutely true” but which have been omitted from the text such titles “may be understood with difficulty by separated brethren”:

Certain expressions and words used by Supreme Pontiffs, have been omitted, which, in themselves are absolutely true, but which may be understood with difficulty by separated brethren (in this case, Protestants).Among such words may be numbered the following: “Co-redemptrix of the human race [Pius X, Piux XI]…III

Apart from the specific issue of the previous teaching and use by ordinary papal Magisteium of the Marian title of Co-redemptrix, the theological method of determining what is included or what is omitted into the Second Vatican Council based on the criteria of  what doctrinal issues “may be misunderstood by separated brethren” would also seem, if consistently applied throughout Lumen Gentium and other conciliar documents, to call for the omitting of such central Catholic doctrines such as the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, Papal Infallibility, and certainly the removal of Sacred Tradition as a legitimate source of Divine Revelation as discussed in Dei Verbum.IV

Let us always remember the ultimate protection of the Holy Spirit at every ecumenical council.  Let us thank the Holy Spirit for inspiring a fruitful growth in understanding of Our Lady’s role at the heart of the Church as Mother and Model, an ecclesio-typical development in rich though subordinate complement to the primary Christo-typical mariology, both of which are harmoniously embodied in the final product of Lumen Gentium, Chapter 8, “The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God in the Mystery of Christ and the Church.”

History is the great teacher.

At the First Vatican Council, several hundred Council Fathers desired a solemn definition of the doctrine of Mary’s Assumption, but it was decided the time was not right.   Vatican I in no way sought to prohibit or discourage a later solemn definition by deciding not to define the Assumption at the Council.  The subsequent papal definition of the Assumption by Pius XII makes this clear.

Before the Second Vatican Council, over 500 Council Fathers had requested a solemn definition of some aspect of Mary’s coredemption and mediation.  Bl. John XXIII initiated the Council by establishing that the Second Vatican Council would not be a dogmatic council, but a pastoral council.  The Holy Spirit spoke through Peter.

In like manner, the fact that Vatican II did not solemnly define Mary’s roles as Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of all graces cannot be correctly interpreted as a prohibition or a discouragement of a later solemn papal definition of Marian coredemption and mediation.

The Holy Spirit continues to blow where he wills, and the Second Vatican Council in its rich mariological treatment may well have served in a manner similar to the First Vatican Council: as a conciliar tube which connected one prior period of Marian doctrinal development to another more contemporary period of Marian doctrinal development, both of which ultimately culminate in the historical and supernatural fruit of a solemn Marian papal definition.

Here then, accompanied by the original Latin footnotes (save for the English translation of a few footnotes due to their relevance to the topic) is an English translation of the First Schema of the Second Vatican Council entitled, “Mary, Mother of God and of Men.”

Dr. Guiseppe M. Aiuto received his doctorate in Rome and offers conferences in Rome.

 

Mary, Mother of God and of Men

 

1.  [The close connection between Christ and Mary according to God's gracious will]

Out of immense goodness, God the most wise creator of all things, who in every way enjoys freedom in determining the way and the reason by which the liberation of the human race is accomplished by him, from eternity by one and the same decree with the incarnation of divine Wisdom, decreed 1  that the Most Blessed Virgin, from whom the Word became flesh, would be born in the fullness of time. Since, moreover, the Sacred Scriptures, either explicitly or implicitly, so to say, place before our eyes Mary joined with Jesus with the most strict and indissoluble bond from the prophetic preannouncement (cf. Gn 3:15; Is 7:14; Mt 1:23) and the virginal conception (cf. Mt 1:18-25, and Lk 1:26-38), it is clearly appropriate that the Church, which is aided by the Holy Spirit and is securely led (cf. Jn 14:26) to fully comprehend and clearly understand those things which in the sacred sources lie obscurely and, so to say, implicitly, and is preserved from error (cf. Mt 16:18; 28:18-20; Jn 14:16; 15:20) – when it illustrates the mysteries of the divine Redeemer, should also bring the mystery of the Mother of God into a clearer light.

Moreover, this loving Parent, who “cooperated in charity that the faithful might be born in the Church,” 2  is not only the “supereminent” 3  and, even more, the singular member of the Church, but is also called its exemplar 4  and, even more, its Mother. 5  Therefore, the Holy Synod, after it has spoken of the Mystical Body of Christ, inhering in the above documents of the magisterium of the living Church, the sole authentic interpreter of the deposit of revelation, considers it opportune to summarily and briefly illustrate the place which the Mother of God and men occupies in the Church, the privileges with which the Son has adorned his Mother, and our duties toward such a sublime creature, so that Marian knowledge and piety may clearly and correctly flourish and prejudiced opinions in this matter may be banished.

2. [The role of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary in the economy of our salvation]

Since, therefore, the Word of the eternal Father willed to take a human nature from a woman so that, just as death took its origin from a woman so also life would come to us through a woman, and thus liberation would be obtained by means of both sexes 6, he did not accomplish this before the free consent of the chosen mother, redeemed in a more sublime manner by the foreseen merits of Christ6, would have been given, (cf Lk 1:38), 7 so that the Son of God by his incarnation would become also her Son and the new Adam and Savior of the world. By her consent, Mary, a daughter of Adam, was made not only the Mother of Jesus, the sole divine Mediator and Redeemer, but also joined her work with him and under him in accomplishing the redemption of the human race. 8 She persevered in this salutary consent and, hence, also in her participation in accomplishing the work of redemption, 9 from the time of the virginal conception of Jesus Christ right up until his death, but it shone forth most then when, not without divine purpose, she stood beside the cross (Jn 19:25); she suffered grievously with her Only-Begotten Son; with him and through him with great courage she offered him as the price of our redemption; 10 and, finally, by the same Christ Jesus dying on the cross she was given to men as their mother (Jn 19:26-27). 11 Since, however, the mystery of human redemption would not be completed before the Holy Spirit, promised by Christ, arrived on the day of Pentecost, we contemplate Mary persevering in prayer with the apostles in the Upper Room( cf. Acts 1:14), imploring the outpouring of the Spirit with their prayers. 12

Since, therefore, the Most Blessed Virgin, predestined from eternity to be the Mother of God and men, with divine Providence so disposing that on this earth she would be the eminent companion of the passible Christ in acquiring grace for men, she is justly greeted also as the administrator and dispenser of heavenly graces.

Hence it follows that Mary, who had a part in fashioning the mystical body of Christ, and who has been assumed into heaven and constituted Queen by the Lord, and who bears a maternal spirit towards all, after her Son has obtained a certain primacy above all others 13 and, consequently, is to be placed not, as some say, on the “periphery” 14 but in the very “center” of the Church beneath Christ.

3. [Concerning titles by which the association of the Blessed Virgin Mary with Christ in the economy of our salvation is commonly expressed]

Since in the cooperation of the Mother of God with Christ in completing the work of human redemption as the new Eve with the new Adam, so to say, the multiple and varied titles by which the magisterium of the Church, venerable Tradition, and the pious sense of the faithful have customarily saluted the Blessed Virgin 15, rest as on a solid foundation, root, and principle, it is wrong to say that those titles, as understood in the sense of the Church, are empty and vain, and, even more, that they are opposed to Sacred Scripture. Therefore, it is not without merit that the Most Blessed Virgin is called the Mediatrix of graces by the Church. 16 And, if on this earth St. Paul the Apostle was unceasingly mindful of the faithful in his prayers, 17 and earnestly requested their prayers for himself, 18 much more is it expedient and beneficial that we commend ourselves to the prayers or intercession of this same Most Blessed Virgin Mary. For she, more closely and intimately than any other pure creatures and, in fact, in a way proper to her alone, is joined with God and Christ, the Son of God and her Son; likewise, more ardently than any pure creatures she loves God and is loved by him in return. As Mother of the Savior (Lk 1:31), with her soul pierced by the sword (Lk 2:25), in her own Son dying for the salvation of all, beneath the cross she experienced the love of God in a sense attaining its highest degree in love for mankind (Jn 19:25-27). Supported with so many and such great titles, she intercedes for us with her constant love for God and Christ and, because her intercession draws its total power and efficacy from the bloody sacrifice of her Blessed Son, her mediation in no way effects that the man Jesus Christ ceases to be the one mediator between God and men, just as from Christ’s goodness it does not follow that God himself ceases to be the sole fountain of all goodness (cf. Mt 9:17).

For even though among subordinate mediators, whom the Most Wise God has willed to use in the economy of our salvation, no one can be thought of who, in reconciling men to God, is equal to and has contributed or at any time will contribute as much as the Mother of God, nevertheless, it remains always true that, in her predestination and likewise in her holiness and in all her gifts, she depends on Christ and is in every way beneath him. 19

Although, therefore, this humble “Handmaid of the Lord” to whom “he who is mighty has done great things,” (Lk 1:49) is called the mediatrix of all graces – since she is associated with Christ in acquiring them, and since she is invoked as our advocate and mother of mercy by the Church for even now, remaining the associate of the glorified Christ in heaven, she intercedes for all through Christ, so that in conferring all graces to men the maternal charity of the Blessed Virgin is present, 20 – in no way is the mediation of our sole mediator, according to the absolute signification of the words of the Apostle, “For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,” (1 Tm 2:5), obscured or diminished. 21  Rather, this mediation of Christ is, in fact, extolled and honored. For Mary is a mediatrix in Christ, and her mediation proceeds not from any necessity but from the gracious divine will and the superabundance and power of the merits of Jesus; it is based on the mediation of Christ; and it is entirely dependent on it and receives its total power from the same.

Therefore, the Sacred Synod earnestly exhorts theologians and preachers of the divine word to diligently strive, while engaging in the study especially of Sacred Scripture and the Holy Fathers according to the sense of the magisterium of the Church, to place in a true light the gifts and offices of the Blessed Virgin in connection with other dogmas, especially those which have reference to Christ, who is the center of all truth, holiness, and piety. In this work there is always to be observed, as it is said, “analogy” or a dissimilar similitude, as often as some name or office is predicated simultaneously of Christ and the Virgin Mary; for in no way is the Mother of God to be made equal to Christ.

4. [The singular privileges of the Mother of God and Mother of men]

The Virgin Mary was adorned with altogether singular privileges by God, who pursued her with an unspeakable love. She was, indeed, marvelous in her origin in virtue of the immaculate conception 22; marvelous in her life, since she was without every personal fault 23, and at the same time a mother while remaining always a virgin in mind and body 24; and marvelous, finally, in her departure from this life because, even though according to ancient and venerable tradition she underwent temporal death 25, by which she was more fully assimilated to her Son 26, since she could in no way be held back by the bonds of death, she was gloriously assumed body and soul into heaven 27.

These singular privileges and other gifts of grace flowing from Christ the Redeemer so redound to his honor that we are unable to contemplate the lofty gifts of the Mother without also marveling at and celebrating the divinity, goodness, love, and omnipotence of her Son 28.  Just as the wrong done to a mother affects her son, so too the glory of a mother redounds to her son; consequently, since Mary had a singular affinity with her Son, it was fitting from the foreseen merits of the most perfect Redeemer, the author of all holiness – who came into this world to destroy sin – that in the first instant of conception she be preserved immune from every stain of original sin, and be adorned with graces and gifts far above all angelic spirits and all the saints as the true Mother of God, the daughter of the Father, the shrine of the Holy Spirit, and excel all creatures in dignity. 29 It is also by all means necessary, that the Son, who showed a special affection of love towards his Mother – and who willed the bodily integrity of his Mother in the very act of birth to remain incorrupt and inviolate1, so that the “lasting glory of virginity might shed an eternal light on the world” 30 – would not allow that most sacred virginal body, the narrow tabernacle of the Divine Word, the temple of God, totally holy, totally chaste, to be dissolved into ashes. 31

5.  [Concerning the cult of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary]

Therefore, since a singular excellence belongs to the Most Blessed Virgin 32, so that she merited to be greeted as “full of grace” (Lk 1:28) by the archangel, the messenger of God, and blessed among women by Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit, (Lk 1:42) it is not surprising if, as she herself prophesied with regard to herself that “all generations will call me blessed,” (Lk 1:48) in the course of the centuries by all nations and by universal rites and in continually increasing petitions 33, she is called “blessed,” and with every kind of praise is honored, loved, invoked, and likewise proposed as an example for imitation 34. However, so far removed is this singular cult of Mary from being a detriment to the divine cult of worship – by which adoration is shown to the Incarnate Word in the same way as it is shown to the Father and Holy Spirit – that it rather promotes it as much as possible. Therefore, various forms of piety directed towards the Mother of God and of men, which the Church has approved – within the limits of sane and orthodox doctrine and with respect to the conditions of time and place and the natural abilities and dispositions of the faithful – remind us that when the Mother is honored, the Son in whom it pleased the eternal Father that all fullness should dwell, (Col 1:19) is likewise rightly acknowledged, loved, and glorified, and that his commands are be observed; and so through Christ, who is “the way and truth and life,” (Jn 14:6) men are led to the knowledge and the supreme adoration of the one and triune God.

The Sacred Synod deliberately and courageously teaches this sane Catholic doctrine and at the same time admonishes bishops to be assiduously watchful that theologians and preachers of the divine word, in the consideration of the singular dignity of this parent of God, abstain from all false exaggeration of the truth, and at the same time from a too restricted narrowness of mind1.

Further, the faithful of both sexes should keep in mind that true devotion does not consist in a certain affection of one moment and that, further, they reject all baseless belief; on the contrary, let them firmly hold that devotion proceeds from true faith, by which all are led to imitation of the virtues of that Most Blessed Virgin 35, who was the “handmaid of the Lord,” (Lk 1:38) most humble and most obedient, and who most faithfully observed whatever things referred to the Incarnate Word, “reflecting on them in her heart,” (Lk 2:19), and was greeted as blessed because she believed. (Cf. Lk 1:45) For the maternal closeness of Mary would have been to no avail, “unless she had conceived Christ more joyfully in her heart than in the flesh 36.”

No small number of our separated brothers, most noticeably the Orientals – who with a certain fervent impulse are led to honor the Mother of God in a special way – display this honor and reverence due the Mother of our Lord and Savior, 37 which brings great joy and comfort to this Sacred Synod.

Hence it is clearly evident that the Catholic Church is falsely and unjustly accused with regard to the cult of the Mother of God, as if it would in any way detract from the cult due to the one God and to Jesus Christ.

6. [The Most Holy Mary, Promoter of Christian Unity]

Mary, Mother and Most Holy Virgin, since she had all men commended to her maternal heart on Calvary, vehemently desires that not only those who are gifted with the one baptism and who are led by the one Spirit 38, but also those who do not know that they have been redeemed by Christ Jesus 39, may be bound together with one and the same faith and charity both with the Divine Savior and among themselves. Therefore, the Sacred Synod, based on a certain hope and trust, strives that it will come about that this Mother of God and men – who requested (Cf. Jn 2:3) that the Incarnate Word would perform his first sign in Cana of Galilee, from which his disciples believed in him (Jn 2:11) and soon after were present at the beginning of the Church1 – by her patronage will implore from God that, finally, at some time all will gather in the same flock under the one Shepherd. (Jn 10:16) 40. For this reason it exhorts all the faithful of Christ without exception, to continually pour out prayers and supplications to this Promoter of Unity 41 and Help of Christians so that, through her intercession, her Divine Son might gather into the one people of God all the families of nations, and especially those who glory in the name of Christian – to acknowledge the Vicar of Christ on earth, the successor of the blessed Peter 42 – whom in the Council of Ephesus, where the dogma of the divine maternity was solemnly approved, with the unanimous consent the Fathers was justly greeted as the “Guardian of faith.” ‘

 

Footnotes:

I. In an interesting intervention by Bishop Karol Wojtlya (the future John Paul II), he petitioned that the treatment on the Mother of God be inserted as Chapter 2 in the document on the Church rather than the last chapter, which could appear as a corollary than a composite part of the document.  Because God had given her such an intimate participation in Christ’s work of redemption, the Marian treatment should appear immediately after the first chapter of the document; cf. Acta, Vol III, Periodus III, Pars II, p. 179.

II. Acta Synodalia Sacrosancti Concilii Oecumenici Vaticani II (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis), Praenotanda IV, p. 99.

III. Acta, Vol. I, Part 4, p. 41.

IV. Cf. Dei Verbum, nn 9,10.

 

Notes:

  1. PIUS IX, Bulla Ineffabilis Deus, 8 dec.  1854: Pii IX P. M. Acta, pars I, vol.  I, p. 599: « vel   ipsissima   verba,   quibus   divinae Scripturae de increata Sapientia loquuntur, eiusque sempiternas origines repraesentant, consuevit turn in ecclesiasticis officiis, tum in sacrosancta Liturgia  adhibere, et ad illius Virginis  primordia   transferee, quae uno   eodemque decreto cum Divinae Sapientiae incarnatione fuerant praestituta »;

    LEO XIII, Litt. Encycl. Augustissimae Virginis, 12 sept. 1897: Leonis XIII P. M. Acta, XVII, p. 285: [Deus] « eam enim ab aeterno ordinavit ut Mater Verbi fieret humanam carnem assumpturi; ideoque inter omnia, quae essent in triplici ordine naturae, gratiae, gloriaeque pulcherrima, ita distinxit, ut merito eidem Ecclesia verba illa tribuerit: “Ego ex ore Altissimi prodivi, primogenita ante omnem creaturam ” [Eccli. 24, 5] »;

    PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Munificentissimus Deus, 1 nov. 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 768: « Idcirco augusta Dei Mater, Iesu Christo, inde ab omni aeternitate ” uno eodemque decreto ” praedestinationis, arcano modo coniuncta … ».

  2. S.   AUGUSTINUS,   De   sancta   virginitate,   VI,   6:   PL   40,   399,   CSEL   41,   240.
  3. S.   AUGUSTINUS,   Sermo   25,   De   verbis   Evangelii   Motthaei   XII,   41-50,   7:   PL   46,   938:
    « Maria portio est Ecclesiae, sanctum membrum, excellens membrum, supereminens membrum, sed  tamen  totius  corporis  membrum ».
  4. S. AMBROSIUS,   In  Luc.   II,   7:   PL   15,   1555   (1635-1636),   CSEL   32/4,   45:   Maria   « bene desponsata, sed virgo  quia est Ecclesiae typus »;

    Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Sermo 213, 7: PL 38, 1064: « Mariae simillima est » Ecclesia. [Cf. morin G., O.S.B., S. Aurelii Augustini Tractatus sive sermones inediti ex cod. Guelferbytano 4096, Monaci 1917, p. 7];

    S. AUGUSTINUS, Sermo 25, De verbis Ev. Matthaei XII, 41-50: PL 46, 938: « In ipsius typo [Ecclesiae] Maria virgo praecessit »; cf. denis M., Sancti Aurelii Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi Sermones inediti adiunctis quibusdam dubiis, Vindobonae 1792, pp. 116-124; morin G., O.S.B., S. Augustini Sermones post Maurinos reperti probate dumtaxat auctoritatis nunc primum disquisiti, in: Miscell. Agostiniana (Studi e Testi, I), Romae 1930, p. 163.

  5. Cf.  leo  XIII,  Litt.  Encycl.  Adiutricem  populi,  5 sept.  1895:   Leonis  XIII  P.  M.  Acta, XV, p. 302:  « … verissime quidem Mater Ecclesiae atque magistra et regina Apostolorum … »;

    BENEDICTUS XIV,   Bulla   aurea   Gloriosae   Dominae,   27   sept.  1748  [Documentos  Marianas, n. 210]:    « … Catholica Ecclesia, Sancti  Spiritus magisterio edocta, eamdem … tamquam amantissimam Matrem … semper professa est».

  6. S. Augustinus,  Quaestiones   Octoginta  tres,  q.   11:   PL   40,   14;   De   Trin.   I,   13,   c.   18: PL  42,   1032.

    Innocentius III, Sermo 28, In Assumptione B. M. V.: PL 217, 581: « Oportebat enim, ut sicut per feminam mors intravit in orbem, ita per feminam vita rediret in orbem. Et ideo quod damnavit Eva, salvavit Maria, ut unde mors oriebatur, inde vita resurgeret.

    Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), pp. 634-635: « Si Maria, in spirituali procuranda salute, cum Iesu Christo, ipsius salutis principio, ex Dei placito sociata fuit, et quidem simili quodam modo, qui Heva fuit cum Adam, mortis principio, consociata, ita ut asseverari possit nostrae salutis opus, secundum quandam “recapitulationem” [S. irenaeus, Adv. haer., V, 19: PG 7, 1175 B] peractum fuisse, in qua genus humanum, sicut per virginem morti adstrictum fuit, ita per virginem salvatur … ».

  7. Alexander   VII,   in   Bulla   Sollicitudo   omnium   Ecclesiarum,   8   dec.    1661,    adhibuit formulam   « eius   animam   in  primo instanti creationis atque infusionis in corpus fuisse special!   Dei gratia et privilegio, intuitu meritorum Iesu Christi eius Filii humani generis Redemptoris, a macula peccati originalis praeservatam immunem»   [cf. Virgo Immaculata, in:   Acta   Congressus   Mariologici-Mariani, Romae anno 1954 celebrati, vol. II, Romae 1956, p. 219; Bulla Ineffabilis   Deus:  Pii  IX  P.  M.  Acta, pars I, vol. I,  p. 602].
    In ipsamet Bulla legitur: « Omnes pariter norunt quantopere solliciti fuerint Sacrorum Antistites vel in istis ecclesiasticis conventibus palam publiceque profiteri, sanctissimam Dei Genitricem Virginem Mariam ob praevisa Christi Domini Redemptoris merita numquam original! subiacuisse peccato, sed praeservatam omnino fuisse ab originis labe, et IDCIRCO sublimiori modo redemptam » [sardi V., La solenne definizione del dogma dell'Immacolato concepimento, Romae, 1905, II, p. 306].
    In Instrumsnto dogmaticae definitionis Immaculati Conceptus Beatae V. Mariae legitur: « gratia plenum, benedictam in mulieribus, omnino nempe ad originis labe praeservatam, ET IDCIRCO SUBLIMIORI MODO REDEMPTAM » [sardi V., Op. cit., II, p. 454].
    PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Fulgens corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS 45 (1953) p. 581: « Facile cernimus Christum Dominum perfectissimo quodam modo divinam Matrem suam revera redemisse, cum, Ipsius meritorum intuitu, eadem a Deo praeservata esset a quavis hereditaria labe immunis ».
  8. In Lc. 1, maternitas divina proponitur Mariae [30-33], Maria difficultates exponit quas angelus solvit [34-37], et tune  demum Maria assentitur   [38].

    S. leo magnus, Sermo 21, c. 1: PL 54, 191: « Virgo regia Davidicae stirpis eligitur, quae sacro gravidanda foetu divinam humanamque prolem prius conciperet mente quam corpora ».

    Innocentius III, Sermo 12: In Purificatione B. V. M.: PL 217, 506: « His ita peractis, statim Spiritus Sanctus advenit, et triplicem viam ante faciem Domini praeparavit. Prima fuit virginalis consensio … ».

    Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Octobri mense, 22 sept. 1891: Leonis XIII P. M. Acta, XI, p. 303: « Filius Dei aeternus, quum, ad hominis redemptionem et decus, hominis naturam vellet suscipere, eaque re mysticum quoddam cum universe humano genere initurus esset connubium, non id ante perfecit quam liberrima consensio accessisset designate Matris, quae ipsius generis humani personam quodammodo agebat ».

    Leo   XIII,  Litt.  Encycl. Iucunda semper,  8  sept. 1894: Leonis XIII  P.   M.  Acta,   XIV, p. 307:   « Filius enim Dei   aeternus sese inclinat ad homines, homo factus; assentiente vero Maria et concipiente de Spiritu Sancto ».

    Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Octobri mense: ASS 24 (1891) p. 195. Virgineum consensum fuisse omnino liberum quamplurimi sancti, Patres et theologi affirmant. Cf. bover I. M., Deiparae Virginis consensus corredemptionis ac mediationis fundamentum, Matriti, 1942, pp. 245-248.

  9. Iuxta doctrinam Romanorum Pontificum, « FIAT » prolatum a B. Virgine in Annuntiatione fuit origo missionis et gloriae B. Virginis Matris et Reginae. Maria fuit sibi conscia se concipere Verbum Dei; fuit conscia loci et muneris quatenus est Mater Redemptoris et hominum; responsum dedit angelo prompte et nomine totius humanitatis faciens possibilem passionem, mortem et resurrectionem Christi; cum hoc « FIAT » facta est mater spiritualis hominum. Cf. Notre- Dame, « Les enseign. pontif. », p. [73], n. 701, 741, 214, 372, 381, 230, 648.

    S. Leo Magnus, Sermo 6 in Nativitate Domini: PL 54, 213: « Generatio enim Christi origo est populi christiani, et natalis Capitis natalis est corporis».

    Leo XIII, Litt. Apost. Parta humano generi, 8 sept. 1901: Leonis XIII P. M. Acta, XXI, p. 158: «O quam suavis igitur, quam grata angelica salutatio accidit beatae Virgin!, quae turn, cum Gabriel eam salutavit, SENSIT SE DE SPIRITU SANCTO CONCEPISSE Verbum Dei ».

    Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Fidentem piumgue, 20 sept. 1896: Leonis XIII P. M. Acta, XVI, pp. 282-283: « Ipsa ad homines in sempiternum ruentes exitium Servatorem adduxit, iam tune scilicet quum pacifici sacramenti nuncium, ab Angelo in terris allatum, admirabili assensu loco totius humanae naturae, excepit … inde simul elucent Mariae promerita de reconciliatione et salute nostra ».

    S. PIUS X, Litt. Encycl. Ad diem ilium, 2 febr. 1904: Acta Pii X, I, pp. 152-153: « An non Christi mater Maria? Nostro igitur et mater est … aeternum Dei Filium non ideo tantum concepit Virgo ut fieret homo, humanam, ex ea assumens naturam; verum etiam ut, per naturam ex ea assumptam, mortalium fieret sospitator. … In uno igitur eodemque alvo castissimae Matris et carnem Christus sibi assumpsit et spiritale simul corpus adiunxit, ex iis nempe coagmentatum qui credituri erant in eum. Ita ut Salvatorem habens Maria in utero, illos etiam dici queat gessisse omnes, quorum vitam continebat vita Salvatoris. Universi ergo, quotquot cum Christo iungimur, quique, ut ait Apostolus, membra sumus corporis eius, de came eius et ossibus eius, de Mariae utero egressi sumus, tamquam corporis instar cohaerentis cum capite. Unde,

    spiritali quidem ratione ac mystica, et Mariae filii nos dicimur, et rosa nostrum omnium mater est … ».

    Eamdem ideam repetit Pius XII in sermone ad Congressum Marianum Canadensem, 19 iun. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) pp. 268-270.

    PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943) pp. 247-248: « Ipsa fuit, quae Christum Dominum, iam in virgineo gremio suo Ecclesiae Capitis dignitate donatum … edidit … Ipsa igitur, omnium membrorum Christi sanctissima Genitrix … ».

    Ibid., p. 247: « Quaeque consensit “loco totius humanae naturae”, ut “quoddam spirituale matrimonium inter Filium Dei et humanam naturam” haberetur». bover I. M., in op. cit. per plus quam 350 paginas probare conatur Deiparae Virginis consensum corredemptionis ac mediationis fundamentum esse. Et sane, angelus Virgini una cum divina maternitate humanam quoque salutem annuntiat, et Virgo, angelo respondens, humanam quoque salutem intendit ac spectat. Ulterius, Incarnatio est salutis exordium, et divina maternitas ad humanam salutem a Deo providenter ordinatur et fructum edit formaliter salutarem.

    S. ioannes damascenus, Homilia 1 in Nativ. B. V. M.: PG 96, 671: « Maria divinae obsequens voluntati, deceptorem anguem ipsa decepit, ac mundo immortalitatem invexit ».

    Nota sunt praeterea verba S. leonis, Sermo in Nativ. Domini, c. 1: PL 54, 191: « Prius mente quam corpore » Virgo concepit.

    Cf. etiam S. augustinus, Sermo 215, 4: PL 38, 1074. Est consensus in Salvatorem incarnandum qui [Mt. 1, 21] « salvum faciet populum suum a peccatis eorum».

    Notum est auctores catholicos haud idem sentire quoad varies textus patristicos, qui in supra allegato opere P. bover leguntur. Id potissimum dicendum quod attinet ad scripta S. ephraem, de quo iure meritoque scribit ricciotti: «Trattare degli scritti di S. Efrem è come mettersi a navigare in un mare le cui rive ancora non siano state tutte esplorate e sulla cui superficie s’intravedono minacciosi molti scogli: il mare è la quantità degli scritti, le rive sono il loro numero, gli scogli sono le interpolazioni e false attribuzioni » [cf. ricciotti G., S. Efrem Siro ..., Roma-Torino, 1925, p. 91].

  10. Cf.   Lc.   2,   1-7;   2,   16-20;   22-38;   Mt.   1,   20-23;   2,   11.   13-15;   lo.   19,   25-27.

    Leo XIII, Litt. Apost. Parta humano generi, 1. c. XXI, p. 159: Maria « mysteriis nostrae Redemptionis … non adfuit tantum, sed interfuit ».

    Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Iucunda semper: 1. c. XIV, p. 307: « Quum enim se Deo vel ancillam ad matris officium exhibuit vel totam cum Filio in tempo devovit, utroque ex facto iam tum (!) consors cum eo exstitit laboriosae pro humano genere expiationis ».

    S. PIUS X, Litt. Encycl. Ad diem illum, 2 febr. 1904: Acta Pii X, I, p. 150: « Opus est omnino sanctissimam eius Matrem mysteriorum divinorum participem ac veluti custodem agnoscere, in qua, tamquam in fundamento post Christum nobilissimo, fidei saeculorum omnium exstruitur aedificatio ».

  11. Summi Pontifices loquendo de Maria sub cruce dicunt quod Maria exercebat actus fidei, spei et caritatis, ita unita   amore doloribus Christi ut sit connexio inter compassionem Mariae et redemptionem; ipsa renuntiat iuribus  maternis et offert sacrificium maternum, fitque nostra mater spiritualis. Paucis verbis: compassio Mariae   connexionem habet  cum  redemptione,  talique modo ut ipsa inde merito dici possit corredemptrix, et per modum   unius recensentur fructus redemptionis Christi et compassionis Mariae.

    En quidam textus:

    Leo XIII, Litt. Apost. lucunda semper, 8 sept. 1894: Acta Leonis XIII, XIV, pp. 307-308: « Concors cum eo exstitit laboriosae pro humano genere expiationis: ex quo etiam, in acerbissimis Filii angoribus et cruciamentis, maxime animo condoluisse dubitandum non est. Ceterum, praesente ipsa et spectante, divinum illud sacrificium erat conficiendum, cui victimam de se generosa aluerat … stabat iuxta crucem Iesu Maria, Mater eius, quae tacta in nos caritate immensa ut susciperet filios, Filium ipsa suum ultro obtulit iustitiae divinae, cum eo commoriens corde, doloris gladio transfixa ».

    S. PIUS X, Litt. Encycl. Ad diem ilium, 2 febr. 1904: Acta Pii X, I, p. 153: « Ad haec, Deiparae sanctissimae non hoc tantum in laude ponendum est quod nascituro ex humanis membris Unigenito Deo carnis suae materiam ministravit, qua nimirum saluti hominum compareretur hostia; verum etiam officium eiusdem hostiae custodiendae nutrien-daeque atque adeo, stato tempore, sistendae ad aram ».

    benedictus XV, Litt. Apost. Inter sodalicia, 22 mart. 1918: AAS 10 (1918) p. 182: « Ita cum Filio patiente et moriente passa est et paene commortua, sic materna in Filium iura pro hominum salute abdicavit placandaeque Dei iustitiae, quantum ad se pertinebat, Filium immolavit, ut dici merito queat, Ipsam cum Christo humanum genus redemisse ».

    PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Miserentissimus Redemptor, 8 maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928) p. 178: « Praesens arrideat Virgo Dei Parens benignissima, quae, cum Iesum nobis Redemptorem ediderit, aluerit, apud crucem hostiam obtulerit, per arcanam cum Christo coniunctionem eiusdemque gratiam omnino      singularem, Reparatrix item extitit pieque appellatur».

    PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corpora: AAS 35 (1943), p. 247: « Ipsa fuit, quae vel propriae vel hereditariae labis expers, arctissime semper cum Filio suo coniuncta, eumdem in Golgotha, una cum maternoram iurium maternique amoris sui holocausto, nova veluti Eva, pro omnibus Adae filiis, miserando eius lapsu foedatis, Aeterno Patri obtulit ».

    Afferri quoque potuissent, praeter testimonia Ss. Roberti Bellarmini et Petri Canisii permultae aliorum theologorum auctoritates.

  12. Notum est plures Vicarios Christi constanter et consulto affirmasse Iesum Christum sanxisse Matrem suam   nostram quoque esse Matrem, eamque testamento illo sollemni a loanne tradito [cf. Io. 19, 26-27],  nobis  in  persona  Discipuli  dilecti  reliquisse;  cf.  unger  D. O.F.M. Cap.,  The  Meaning of John 19.  26-27  in  the  Light  of  Papal Documents,   in:  Marianum 21 (1959), pp. 186-221,  ubi afferuntur testimonia benedicti XIV, PII  VIII, gregorii  XVI, PII   IX,  leonis   XIII, benedicti XV, pii  XI, PII XII. Ex hisce quamplurimis testimoniis en quaedam tantummodo:

    leo   XIII,   Litt.   Encycl.   Octobri   mense:   ASS   24   (1891-92)   p.   196:    «…talem de cruce praedicavit, quum   universitatem  humani  generis,   in   loanne   discipulo,    curandam   ei   foven damque   commisit … »;

    id.,   Epist.   Apost.  Amantisimae   voluntatis,  14  apr.  1895:  ASS 27  (1894/95)    p.    592 «… sanctissimam Dei  Genitricem,  quam  humano generi Christus  ipse e cruce reliquit atque attribuit  matrem … »;

    id.,    Litt.    Encycl.  Adiutricem  populi:  ASS 28  (1895/96)  p. 130:    « Eximiae  in  nos caritatis [Christi] mysterium ex eo quoque luculenter proditur, quod moriens Matrem ille suam loanni discipulo matrem voluit relictam, testamento mempri: “Ecce films tuus”. In loanne autem, quod perpetuo sensit Ecclesia, designavit Christus personam humani generis, eorum in primis qui sibi ex fide adhaerescerent … »;

    benedictus XV, Litt. Apost. Inter Sodalicia, 22 mart. 1918: AAS 10 (1918) p. 182: « Liquet item, Virginem Perdolentem, utpote quae, a Iesu Christo universorum hominum Mater constituta … »;

    PIUS XI, Litt. Apost. Explorata res, 2 febr. 1923: AAS 15 (1923) p. 104: «… Virgo perdolens redemptionis opus cum Iesu Christo participavit, et constituta hominum Mater, eos, sibi veluti testamento divinae caritatis commendatos, amplexa … »;

    id., Litt. Encycl. Lux veritatis, 25 dec. 1931: AAS 23 (1931) p. 514: « … talem de cruce praedicavit, cum universitatem humani generis in loanne discipulo, curandam ei fovendamque commisit » [citando Encycl. Leonis XIII, cf. supra];

    PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Fulgens corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS 45 (1953) p. 584: «… Mater nostra Maria nihil optatius habet, nihil iucundius, quam cum eos videt, quos sub Cruce Nati in eius vicem suscepit filios … »;

    id.,  Epist.   ad  Em.mum  Card.   Al.   Maglione,   15  apr.   1942:   AAS  34  (1942)  p.   126;

    id., Alloc. Us qui interfuerunt Conventui Sodalitatis internationalis ” Filiarum Mariae Immaculatae “, 17 iul. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 494;

    ioannes XXIII, Nuntius Radiophonicus VII Congressui Mariano Galliae: L’Oss. Rom. 10-11 iul. 1961: « La sainte Ecriture, avec ce point tres lumineux … qui vous conduit … au sommet sublime de la theologie mariale, Jesus au haut sur la croix: a ses pieds, Marie, la mere, et Jean, I’Apotre de predilection … »;

    id., L’omaggio dei redenti alia Madre celeste: L’Oss. Rom. 8 sept. 1960: « II Nuovo Testamento incomincia,

    ben si può dire, con le parole del divino Inviato: ” Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae “. Al termine, al vertice della comunicazione della Divinita con l’umanità, è Gesu il Redentore del mondo, il quale, poco prima della sua morte di croce, affida Maria all’Apostolo Giovanni dicendogli: “Ecco tua Madre”, e raccomandando il discepolc a Maria aggiunge: “Ecco il tuo figlio “. Il testamento del Signore è il suggello, la manifestazione più alta della vita della santa Chiesa … Nella vita del cristiano tutto dunque è illuminato da questa nota che tocca il cuore: Maria nostra Madre ».

    Cf. kerrigan A., O.F.M., Jo. 19, 23-27 in the Light of Johannine Theology and the Old Testament, in: Antonianum 35 (1960) pp. 369-416.

  13. Act.   1,   14;   2,   1-4.

    leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Superiore anno, 30 aug. 1884: Acta Leonis XIII, IV, p. 124: « Intuendum item in exemplum Apostolorum, qui maximum Spiritus Paracliti donum sibi promissum exspectaverunt, perseverantes unanimiter in oratione cum Maria Matre Iesu »

    leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Adiutricem populi: Acta Leonis XIII, XV, p. 302: « In Ioanne autem, quod perpetuo sensit Ecclesia, designavit Christus personam humani generis…Huius igitur singularis muneris et laboriosi partes ea suscepit obiitque magnanima, cpnsecratis in Caenaculo auspiciis: christianae gentis primitias iam turn sanctimonia exempli, aucto-ritate consilii, solatii suavitate, efficacitate sanctarum precum admirabiliter fovit; verissime quidem mater Ecclesiae atque magistra et regina Apostolorum, quibus largita etiam est de divinis oraculis quae conservabat in corde suo ».

    leo XIII, Litt. Apost. lucunda semper, 8 sept. 1894: Acta Leonis XIII, XIV, p. 308: « Quoniam vero humanae redemptionis sacramentum non ante perfectum erit quam promis sus a Christo Spiritus Sanctus advenerit, ipsam idcirco in memori Caenaculo contemplamur ubi simul cum Apostolis pro eisque postulans inerrabili gemitu, eiusdem Paracliti amplitu dinem maturat Ecclesiae, supremum Christi donum, thesaurum nullo tempore defecturum »

    Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943) p. 248: « Ipsa fuit, quae validissimis suis precibus impetravit, ut Divini Redemptoris Spiritus, iam in Cruce datus recens ortae Ecclesiae prodigialibus muneribus Pentecostes die conferretur».

  14. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) pp. 625-640. Hisce in litteris encyclicis quibus festum universale Mariae Reginae instituitur, huius regalitatis factum, tituli, natura explanantur. Regalitas Mariae eruitur ex Sacra Scriptura [Lc. 1, 30-35], ex traditione, ex ratione theologica: nempe ex divina maternitate et ex consortio cum Christo Rege. « Si Maria — scribit Pius XII, l.c. p. 634 ss. — in spirituali procuranda salute, cum Iesu Christo, ipsius salutis principio, ex Dei placito sociata fuit, et quidem simili quodam modo, quo Heva fuit cum Adam, mortis principio, consociata, ita ut asseverari possit nostrae salutis opus, secundum quandam “recapitulationem” peractum fuisse, in qua genus humanum, sicut per virginem morti adstrictum fuit, ita per virginem salvatur; si praeterea asseverari itidem potest hanc gloriosissimam Dominam ideo fuisse Christi matrem delectam “ut redimendi generis humani consors efficeretur” …; inde procul dubio concludere licet, quemadmodum Christus, novus Adam, non tantum quia Dei Filius est, Rex dici debet, sed etiam quia Redemptor est noster, ita quodam analogiae modo, Beatissimam Virginem esse Reginam non tantummodo quia mater Dei est, verum etiam quod nova veluti Heva cum novo Adam consociata fuit ».

    Pag. 635: « Nullum igitur dubium est Mariam Sanctissimam dignitate sua super omnes res creatas excellere itemque super omnes post Filium suum obtinere primatum».

  15. De tendentia « minimalistica» inter ipsos quosdam catholicos viros sparsa, qui potissimum sic dictam viam   « ecclesiologicam » tenent, cf.  e.g.   pinsk   J.,   Grundsdtzliche und praktische Erwagungen zur christlichen Verkiindigung irn Marianischen Jahr, Berlin 1954;  geiselmann J. R., Marien-Mythos und Marien-Glaube, in: Maria in Glaube und From-migkeit …, 1954, pp. 39-91.

    Pius XII, Nuntius Radiophonicus Iis qui interfuerunt conventui internationali mariologico-mariano, Romae habito, 24 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 679: « Etsi verurn est Beatissimam Virginem quoque, uti nos, Ecclesiae esse membrum, tamen non minus verum est eam esse Corporis Christi Mystici membrum PLANE SINGULARE ».

  16. In Christian antiquity it was customary to refer to Mary as Eve, a title which seems to be taken from the principle of “re-circulation” or parallelism between Mary and Eve. Witness in this regard is found already in St. Justin’s Dialogue with Trypho: “And since we read that he is the Son of God… and made man from the Virgin, so that in the way that the disobedience spawned by the serpent took its beginning, it would receive its dissolution in the say way … .” Based on the same principle, St. Irenaeus (Against Heresies) explicitly calls Mary the cause of salvation for the entire human race. After the Council of Ephesus, the very title of Mediatrix, or as the Greeks say, Mesites or Mesetria, is attributed to Mary. In a work of a quite ancient author (some say of the 5th century but certainly before the 8th century) we read: “For she is the Mediatrix of heaven and earth, who naturally accomplishes their union.” This title became more common day by day, as can be seen in the writings of St. Andrew of Crete, St. Germanus of Constantinople, St. John Damascene, etc. Nor are there lacking Fathers who greet Mary as “Helper of the Redeemer” or “Mother of the living” in reference to Gn 3:15.

    All these have been further developed by theologians and Supreme Pontiffs, and a nomenclature was created in which Mary is at different times called the Spiritual Mother of Men. the Queen of Heaven and Earth, and at other times the New Eve, the Mediatrix and Dispenser of All Graces, and even, in fact, the Co-redemptrix. With regard to the title “Queen”, cf. Note 14; with regard to the title Spiritual Mother, cf. Note 12. With regard to the title, Co-redemptrix”, and “Companion of Christ the Redeemer”, some explanations need to be added here:

    The title Redemptrix occurs already in the 10th century: “Holy Redemptrix of the world, pray for us.” When this title came into use in the 15th and 16th centuries and the immediate co-operation of the Blessed Virgin in the work of our redemption was already perceived, “con” [cum] was added to “redemptrix,” so that the Mother of God was called “corredemptrix,” [Co-redemptrix] whereas Christ continued to be called “Redemptor” [Redeemer]. Accordingly, from the 17th century onward, the title of “Co-redemptrix” was in common use not only in works geared to piety and devotion, but also in very many theological treatises [cf. Carol J., The Co-redemption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Rome, 1950, p. 482]

    With regard to the Roman Pontiffs, the word occurs in certain texts of St. Pius X et Pius XI in contexts of lesser importance. Pius XII purposely wished to avoid this expression by frequently using formulas such as “Companion of the Redeemer,” “Eminent companion of the Redeemer,” “Loving companion of the Redeemer,” “Companion in the work of the Divine Redeemer.”

    The cooperation of Mary with Jesus in the economy of our salvation is very, very often extolled by Supreme Pontiffs. Leo XIII: “the great Mother of God and likewise the companion in repairing the human race.” Pius XI: “The Redeemer was not able, due to the necessity of the work, to not associate his Mother with his work, and that is the reason why we invoke her with the title of Co-redemptrix.” Pius XII: “Mary, in procuring spiritual salvation with Jesus Christ, from the very beginning of salvation, was associated by God’s will…”

    In addition to the titles mentioned, there are very many others with which Mary is greeted by the faithful of Christ.

    Leo XIII: “The Catholic people greet her as Help of Christians,” “Helper,” etc.

    Pius VI: “Likewise [a teaching] which forbids images, especially of the Blessed Virgin, to be distinguished by any title, besides the designations, which are analogous to mysteries which are expressly mentioned in Scripture, as if other pious designations cannot be ascribed to images which are approved and commended even in the public prayers of the Church: temerarious, offensive to pious ears, especially injurious to the veneration due to the Virgin.”

  17. In carefully surveying the Appendix of Volume II in preparation of the Acts and Documents for Vatican Council II (pp. 131-140), it is apparent that more than 500 bishops and prelates from all five parts of the world requested a solemn definition of some social office of the Blessed Virgin, and especially her universal mediation with regard to graces. As P. De Aldama, S.J., writes (p.419): “That the Blessed Virgin Mary is a mediatrix in some true sense, and is such with a title by all means special above other saints, is de fide from the ordinary magisterium. That the title of mediatrix can be justly used, is certain from repeated use by the Roman Pontiffs and in the liturgy; there is no room for doubt here.” And again he writes (p. 427): “That the mediation of Mary with regard to dispersing graces is in every way special and far exceeds the mediation of the saints, seems to be de fide from the ordinary magisterium. That it refers to all graces in a general way, is at least Catholic doctrine.” Other approved aauthors, especially Popes, speak in much the same way.

    Pius IX: “The most powerful mediatrix in the entire world with her Only-begotten Son”

    Leo XIII: “The mediatrix of our peace with God and the administrator of heavenly graces”

    Leo XIII: “Our Lady, the reparatrix of the entire world, the procurer of the gifts of God.”

    Leo XIII: “She is the one of whom was born Jesus, i.e. his Mother, and for this reason she was worthy and most acceptable to be the Mediatrix for the Mediator.”

    Leo XIII: “So the most powerful Virgin Mother, who formerly cooperated in charity so that the faithful might be born in the Church, is even now the means and mediatrix of our salvation.”

    Pius X: “From this sharing of sorrows and will between Mary and Christ, she merited to very worthily become the Reparatrix of a ruined world and, accordingly, also the dispenser of all gifts which Jesus gained for us by his death and blood.”

    At times the Most Blessed Virgin is called the Mediatrix to the Mediator, Christ and, at other times, to God. In the Constitution both formulas are used. It is said that she intercedes through Christ, in conformity with that declaration of the Council of Trent regarding the intercession of saints: “It is good and beneficial to earnestly invoke the saints for the sake of requesting blessings from God through his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord, who alone is our Redeemer and Savior.” Hence, the Blessed Virgin and other saints intercede for us mediately, namely, through Christ. That is the reason why the Church closes all its prayers with: Through Our Lord Jesus Christ…

  18. Cf.  Rom.   1,   10;  Eph.   1,   15;   Phil.   1, 3-4;  Col.   1,  3 et  9;   1  Th.   1,  2-3;   2  Tim.   1,  1.
  19.  Cf.  Rom.  15,  30;  2 Cor.  1,  11;  Eph.  6,  18-19;   1  Th.  5,  25;  2 Th.  3,   1;  Hebr.   13,   18.
  20. Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Fidentem piumque: Acta Leonis XIII, XVI, p. 282:  « Certissime quidem perfecti Conciliatoris nomen et partes alii nulli conveniunt quam Christo,  quippe qui unus,  homo  idem  et  Deus,  humanum  genus  summo  Patri  in  gratiam  restituerit …   At  vero, si nihil prohibet, ut docet Angelicus, aliquos alias secundum quid did mediatores inter Deum et homines, prout scilicet cooperantur ad unionem hominis cum Deo dispositive et ministerialiter, cuiusmodi sunt angeli sanctique caelites, prophetae et utriusque testamenti sacerdotes, profecto eiusdem gloriae decus Virgini excelsae cumulatius convenit. Nemo etenim unus cogitari quidem potest, qui reconciliandis Deo hominibus parem atque ilia operam vel umquam contulerit, vel aliquando sit collaturus … ».

    Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Fulgens corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS (1953) pp. 581-582: « Immerito igitur acatholici et novatores non pauci hac etiam de causa nostram reprehendunt atque im-probant erga Deiparam Virginem pietatem, quasi nos aliquid ex cultu uni Deo ac Iesu Christo debito subducamus; cum contra, quidquid honoris venerationisque caelesti Matri nostrae tribui-mus, id procul dubio in Divini eius Filii decus redundet, non modo quod ex ipso omnes gratiae omniaque dona, vel excelsa, ut e primo fonte oriuntur, sed etiam quod ” gloria filiorum patres eorum “».

    Pius XII, Alloc. Iis qui interfuerunt Conventui Sodalitatis internationalis ” Filiarum Mariae Immaculatae “, Romae habito, 17 iul. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 492: « C’est pour devenir la Mère de Dieu qu’elle a recu de son divin Fils tous les dons de la nature et de la grace. Voilà pourquoi le culte de la Vierge, si du moins on le comprend bien, loin de rien oter à la gloire de Dieu, remonte immédiatement à Lui, l’Auteur de tout bien, qui 1′a voulue si grande et si pure ».

  21. Whereas there is no difficulty in admitting that Mary is the mediatrix of all graces in so far as she is associated with Christ in acquiring these (here we must, of course, abstract from the question of whether immediate or mediate, whether direct or indirect, whether by actively receiving in the first act or by some other way…) Various questions arise if we approach her role as Mediatrix in so far as she distributes graces, and especially as regards the universality of her mediation. That Mary can request all graces for us is clear. However, whether no graces are dispensed without Mary’s intervention is another question. We come up against questions regarding direct and indirect intervention, the manner of distributing grace in the Old Testament, and how are graces conferred in the sacraments. Accordingly, freedom is granted to Catholic schools to dispute these and other related questions, while observing the very general norm that in all graces which are conferred there is present the maternal charity of Mary, a least according to that expression of Augustine cited at the beginning that, “She cooperated with charity, so that the faithful may be born in the Church and may be continually born.” In the encyclical, Octobri mense, Leo XIII used the expression: “God so willed to impart nothing whatsoever from that immense treasury of all grace, which the Lord confers… except through Mary.” In the Subcommission there were more than just a few who would have wished this formula used in the Constitution. It is clear that this exclusive formula has its basis in papal documents and the teachings of theologians. But it was found more acceptable to use the generically expressed formula by the same Leo XIII cited above, namely, “… the most powerful Virgin Mother, who formerly cooperated in charity so that the faithful might be born in the Church, is even now the means and mediatrix of our salvation.”
  22. Ita erronee cogitant haud pauci protestantes: cf. e. gr. maury P., Le protestantisme et la Vierge Marie, Paris, 1950, p. 65. Videsis balic C., O.F.M., La mariología es punto de convergencia o de divergencia para la unión? in: Ante el II Concilia Ecumenico Vaticano, Burgos 1960, pp. 232-250; id., Maria e il movimento ecumenico, in: boyer C., II problema ecu­menico oggi, Brescia 1961, pp. 547-562.
  23. Pius  IX,  Bulla Ineffabilis  Deus,  8  dec.  1854:  denz.   1691.
  24. conc.  trident.,  Sess.  VI,  Deer,  de  iustificatione:  denz.   833; conc.  trident.,  Sess.  VI,  Deer,  de  iustificatione:  denz.   833;
    S. augustinus, De natura et gratia, c. 36, n. 42: PL 44, 267: « Excepta itaque sancta Virgine Maria, de qua propter honorem Domini nullam prorsus cum de peccatis agitur, haberi volo quaestionem: (unde enim scimus quid ei plus gratiae collatum fuerit ad vincendum ex omni parte peccatum, quae concipere ac parere meruit, quem constat nullum habuisse peccatum?): hac ergo Virgine excepta, si omnes illos sanctos et sanctas, cum hie viverent, con-gregare possemus et interrogare utrum essent sine peccato, quid fuisse responsuros putamus? ».
    leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Iucunda semper, 8 sept. 1894: Acta Leonis XIII, XIV, 310: « Eam salutamus, quae gratiam apud Deum invenit, singulariter ab illo plenam gratia, cuius copia ad universes proflueret ».
    Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 636: « Iam in primo temporis momento, quo concepta fuit, tali gratiarum abundantia repletam fuisse, ut Sanctorum omnium gratiam superaret ».
  25. Cf. denz.  6,  13, 20,  111A,  144,  148,  214,  218, 256,  290, 429.
  26. Sacramentarium  Gregorianum   [quod  Hadrianus I misit  Carolo Magno inter annum 784-790] in die Assumptions  sequentem habet orationem: « Veneranda nobis, Domine, huius est diei festivitas, in qua sancta Dei Genitrix mortem subiit temporalem, nee tamen mortis nexibus deprimi potuit, quae filium tuum Dominum nostrum de se genuit  incamatum ».  Cf. C. balic, O.F.M., Testimonia de assumptione beatae Virginis Mariae ex omnibus saeculis, pars I, Romae  1948, p.  155.

    Beatissimam Virginem mortem subiisse temporalem et ad similitudinem Filii sui resur-rexisse, antiquissima et communissima est Ecclesiae doctrina. Plus quam tertia pars petitionum quae ad Sanctam Sedem delatae sunt ut definiatur Assumpio, definitionem quoque mortis Deiparae expostulant; dimidia vero pars talium petitionum intimam relationem ponunt inter mortem et Assumptionem. At, hisce ultimis annis incoepit divulgari sententia B. Virgi­nem abiisse et non obiisse. Quae sententia nitebatur potissimum quadam relatione privata ex qua deducebatur ipsum Vicarium Christi [pium XII] haud tenere traditionalem Ecclesiae doc-trinam hac in re. En quid dicendum      circa mentem Romanorum Pontificum hisce ultimis decenniis hac in re:      PIUS XI et ioannes XXIII docent B. Virginem mortuam esse; idem saltern implicite docuit ipsemet Pius XII. Et re quidem vera:

    PIUS XI, Allocuzione nella lettura del Decreto de Tuto per la canonizzazione della Beata Thouret [trad. it. L'Oss. Rom., 16 aug. 1933, p. 1]: « Con l’assiduita nella preghiera si deve fare di Maria la quotidiana mediatrice, la nostra vera avvocata, sicche possiamo sperare che Ella, assunta nella gloria del Cielo, nell’ora del nostro trapasso, che fu pure il suo — poichè Ella pure fece questo passo, essendo in Lei non la grazia di creazione, ma la grazia di Redenzione, la quale non conjeriva immortalità vera e piopria — possa Ella essere nostra avvo­cata presso la divina bonta e misericordia »;
    ioannes XXIII, Litt. Apost. in L’Oss. Rom., 1 oct. 1961, p. 2: « L’immazine soave di Maria si irradia e si accende nella suprema esaltazione. Che bella scena la dormizione di Maria, cosi come i cristiani di Oriente la contemplano: Essa e distesa nel sonno placido della morte e Gesu è accanto a Lei, e tiene presso il suo petto come un bambino l’anima della Vergine, ad indicare il prodigio della immediata risurrezione e glorificazione », … « Il mistero dell’Assunta ci mantiene familiari al pensiero della nostra morte … »;

    Card. A. ottaviani, in: Acta Pontiftciae Academiae Marianae Internationalis, I, Romae 1961, p. 63 [cf. L'Oss. Rom., 18 dec. 1961, p. 7]: « Non bisogna pero confondere il magistero autentico con le voci incontrollate o le fantasie per le quali si attribuisce a questo o a quel Sommo Pontefice un’idea o un’espressione non controllabile. Si è sparsa, per esempio, la voce che il compianto Pontefice Pio XII avrebbe espresso le sue preference per la sentenza dicoloro che ritengono che l’Assunzione della Vergine non sia stata una risurrezione anticipata, ma una traslazione nei cieli senza la morte su questa terra: “abiit, et non obiit”. Per quanto mi consta, il compianto Pontefice non era di questa idea: è vero, anzi, il contrario. Questa sen-tenza del resto toglierebbe qualche cosa a quella cooperazione, per la quale la Vergine è detta Alma Soda Redemptoris. Come poteva Ella non subire, anche se non dovuta, la morte, se la voile subire il suo divin Figliuolo? Invece è cosi bello vedere in tutte le fasi del ciclo redenti-vo il parallelo degli eventi che congiunsero la Madre al Figlio divino! A questo accennava Pio XII nella Munificentissimus Deus, quando asseriva: “… parique modo baud difficile iisdem [ossia ai fedeli] fuit, assentiri Magnam etiam Dei Matrem, quemadmodum iam Unigenitum suum, ex hac vita decessisse”».

    Traditio antiquissima et constans qua nititur Orientis et Occidentis Christian! doctrina de morte B. V. Mariae non est « mere historica », sed etiam, immo potissimum, « theologica »; ilia nempe traditio quae « per se ipsam » dedit Pio XII certissimum argumentum pro veritate Assumptionis dogmaticae definienda. Et si valor huius Traditionis in casu mortis B. Virginis ad nihilum reduceretur, tune, ut iure meritoque scribit P. colosio J., O. P., Due pubblicazioni su Dionigi Areopagita, in: Rivista di ascetica e mistica, 5 (1960) p. 202: « Per coerenza vor-remmo che questi teologi applicassero questo medesimo criterio a tanti altri casi del genere … ed allora si accorgerebbero che dobbiamo riformare o certe parti della dottrina comune o il loro non giusto criterio sull’argomento di tradizione ».

  27.  In traditione Christiana variae rationes allatae sunt ad illustrandum factum mortis B. V. Mariae [cf. balic C., Testimonia de assumptione Beatae Virginis Mariae ex omnibus sueculis,  II, Romae  1950, « Index analyticus », pp. 496-499].
    « … non fuit decens — scribit S. bonaventura, In III Sent., d. Ill, a. 2, q. 3, ad 3 [ed. Quaracchi, t. Ill, p. 78 b] — Filium Dei habere matrem immortalem, cum ipse esset mortal is ».
    Alii vero dicunt quod mortua est ne Christo maior forte videretur … [cf. balic, op. ctt.]: « decuit enim eam in hoc esse suo Filio similem » [balic, Ibid., II, p. 239]; « quidquid autem fuit in Christo ut puro nomine, etiam tribuendum est beatae Virgini, quae etiam sponte posuit animam et assumpsit poenalitates, ne Christo maior esse videretur et cooperaretur ad nostram redemptionem » [Ibid., II, pp. 94-95]. Marcellinus siuri [m. 1734], post Frances de urrutygoiti [m. 1682], refert quemdam auctorem hispanum, immortalitatem Deiparae propugnantem, a sacrp Inquisitionis tribunali damnatum fuisse: Universa Ecclesia enim tenet Mariam mortem subiisse temporalem etiam « ut Filio conformaretur; congruum enim erat ut sicut Iesus morti se subiecit in redemptionem humani generis, ita et quod Mater electa in redemptionis coope-ratricem similiter morti subiaceret ». Et Cl. A. subiungit: « Quam rationem conformitatis cum Filio tanti faciendam a Matre existimo quod si ei optio daretur, potius eligeret mori ut Filio conformaretur, quam sine morte ad gloriam transferri, et tanti fieri a Filio matrem crediderim quod si in alio ordine rerum voluisset sine propria morte genus humanum  redimere Matrem quoque a morte immunem fecisset » [Ibid., II, pp. 240-241].
    Per se patet factum mortis B. Virginis non propter solas has similesque rationes, sed potissimum propter constantem et communissimum consensum Ecclesiae docentis et discentis, ut factum certum admitti.
  28. Pius  XII,   Const,  dogm.   Munificentissimus  Deus,   1   nov.   1950:   AAS .42  (1950)  p.   770.
  29. Pius IX, Bulla Ineffabilis Deus, 8 dec.  1854:  Acta PII IX, pars I, vol. I, p.  598:  « Venerabilis mater,  cui Deus Pater unicum Filium suum,  quern  de  corde  suo  aequalem  sibi  genitum  tanquam  seipsum   diligit,   ita   dare  disposuit   ut   naturaliter  esset   unus   idemque   communis Dei Patris et Virginis Filius, et quam ipse Filius substantialiter facere sibi matrem elegit, et de qua Spiritus Sanctus voluit et operatus est,  ut conoiperetur et nasceretur  ille,  de  quo ipse procedit ».
  30.  Pius IX, Bulla Ineffabilis Deus, 8 dec.  1854:  Acta PII IX, pars I, vol. I, p.  598:  « Venerabilis mater,  cui Deus Pater unicum Filium suum,  quern  de  corde  suo  aequalem  sibi  genitum  tanquam  seipsum   diligit,   ita   dare  disposuit   ut   naturaliter  esset   unus   idemque   communis Dei Patris et Virginis Filius, et quam ipse Filius substantialiter facere sibi matrem elegit, et de qua Spiritus Sanctus voluit et operatus est,  ut conoiperetur et nasceretur  ille,  de  quo ipse procedit ».
  31. In professione oblata a Nicephoro, Patriarcha Constantinopolitanp, et accepta a Leone III, Claris verbis integritas corporalis B. Virginis in partu affirmatur:  « Virginem quoque, quae supernaturalite et ineffabiliter pepererat, post partum virginem conservavit,  virginitatem illius secundum  naturam  nulla ex  parte  demutata  aut  labefactata »   [denz.   314,  n.   3].   In  Epistola S. leonis, quam Patres Concilii Oecumenici IV susceperunt clamantes Petrum per Leonem locutum esse,  legitur:   « Nova  autem nativitate  generatus:   quia  INVIOLATA  VIRGINITAS  concupiscentiam nescivit, carnis materiam ministravit …  Quia nativitas est mirabilis,  ideo  nostri est natura dissimilis »  [denz.   144].
    In conc. lateranensi, sub Martino I habito [quod licet non sit oecumenicum sensu techni-co, tamen mentem Ecclesiae, tarn latinae quam graecae manifestat], expresse condemnatur anathemate qui virginitatem in partu nollet confiteri: « Si quis secundum sanctos Patres non confitetur proprie et secundum veritatem Dei genitricem sanctam semper Virginem et immacu-latam Mariam utpote ipsum Deum Verbum specialiter et veraciter, qui a Deo Padre ante omnia saecula natus est, in uitimis saeculorum absque semine concepisse ex Spiritu Sancto, et INCORRUPTIBILITER eam [eum?] genuisse, indissolubili permanente et post partum eiusdem virgi-nitate, condemnatus sit » [denz. 256].
    S. ambrosius, De institutione Virginis et S. Marine virginitate perpetua, c .8: PL 16, 334: « Porta igitur Maria, per quam Christus intravit in hunc mundum, quando virginali fusus est partu, et genitalia virginitatis non solvit. Mansit intemeratum septum pudoris, et inviolata in-tegritatis duravere signacula, cum exiret ex virgine … ».
    Idem etiam decent S. augustinus, Epist. 137 ad Volusianum, c. 2, n. 8: PL 33, 519; S. hieronymus, Epist. 4S, 21: PL 22, 510, aliique plures SS. Patres. Quae quidem Traditionis christianae testimonia sic paucis verbis exprimit fetavius, De Incarnatione, lib, c. 6 [Opera omnia, VII, Parisiis, 1876, p. 76]: « Illud tamen ex Patrum omnium decreto pro certo tenen-dum est, quod catholica universa profitetur Ecclesia, beatissimam Virginem, hoc quidquid sit, quo a maritatis discern! virgines possunt, illibatum in partu integrumque retinuisse ».
    Et communiter docetur hanc doctrinam esse tenendam fide divina et catholica. At, nonnulli moderni auctores putant virginitatem B. Virginis in partu haud consistere in aliqua incorrupti-bilitate, et virginitatem in partu dicunt univocam esse cum virginitate ante partum. Cf. mitte-rer A., Dogma und Biologie der heiligen Familie, Wien 1952, pp. 122-124; galot J., S. I., La virginite de Marie et la naissance de Jesus, in Nouvelle Revue Theologique, 92 (1960), pp. 449-470.
  32. Praefatio de Beata Maria  Virgine.
  33. S.  germanus  constantinopolitanus,  In  Sanctae  Dei  Genitricis  dormitionem,   Sermo  1: PG  98,  346-347:   « Neque  fieri  poterat,  ut  quae  Dei  capax  vasculum  esses,   emortuum   corpus corrumpente   difflueres   pulvere »   [347];   « Tu   iuxta   quod  scriptum   est,   speciosa   es,   tuumque illud corpus virginale, totum sanctum est, totum castum, totum Dei domicilium;  ut ideo quo­ que a resolutione in pulverem deinceps sit liberum… » [346]. « Quia enim is, qui in te fuerat exinanitus, Deus erat a principio, ac vita saeculis antiquior;  utique par quoque erat ut  Vitae Mater, Vitae pariter contubernalis fieret;  dormitionemque somni instar susciperet;  ac migratio-
    nem haud secus atque expergefactionem, ceu Vitae Parens, subiret …»  [347].
    S. ioannes damascenus, Homilia 2 in dormitione B. V. M., n. 14: PG 96, 741 [balic C., O. F. M., Testimonia de assumptione B. V. Mariae ex omnibus saeculis, pars prior: Ex aetate ante Concilium Tridentinum, Romae 1948, p. 89]: « Necesse enim fuit divinum illud domici­lium…penetralibus terrae minime concludi, sed sicut sanctum illud incorruptumque corpus ex ipsa [assumptum et] cum Deo Verbo hypostatice coniunctum tertia die e monumento sur-rexit, sic etiam ipsam e sepulchro eripi, Matremque ad Filium transmigrare…Necesse fuit eam quae Deum Verbum uteri sui hospitio exceperat in tabernacula Filii sui deferri…Necesse fuit sius quae in partu virginitatem sine labe servaverat incorruptum etiam post mortem corpus scrvari. Necesse fuit eam quae Creatorem ut infantem sinu gestaverat in divinis Filium suum in cruce conspiciens, gladium quem pariendo effugerat, pectore tune exceperat, Ipsum Patri considentem spectare oculis. Necesse fuit Dei Matrem ea quae Filii essent possidere, et ut Matrem Dei et ancillam coli ab omni creatura ».
    Cf. Pius XII, Const. Apost. Munificentisaimus Deus, 1 nov.  1950: AAS 42 (1950) pp. 758 ss., ubi afferuntur argumenta Patrum et theologorum, inter quos liceat afferre S. bellarminum qui ait [p. 766]: « Et quis, obsecro, credere posset, arcam sanctitatis, domicilium Verbi, templum Spiritus Sancti corruisse? Exhorret plane animus meus vel cogitare carnem illam virgineam, quae Deum genuit, peperit, aluit, gestavit, vel in cinerem esse conversam, vel in escam vermi-bus traditam ».
    Et S. franciscus salesius adiungit [Ibid.]: « Quinam filius, si posset, matrem suam ad vitam non revocaret, atque eam post mortem in Paradisum non adduceret? ». Utique, concludit S. alphonsus [Ibid.]: « Iesus Mariae corpus post mortem corrumpi noluit, cum in suum de-decus redundaret virginalem eius carnem in tabem redigi, ex qua suam ipsemet carnem assumpserat ». degere taber-naculis. Necesse fuit Sponsam quam Pater sibi desponsaverat, caelestibus immorare thalamis. Necesse fuit eam quae
  34. Pius IX, Bulla Ineffabilis Deus, 8 dec. 1354: Acta Pii IX, pars I, vol. I, pp. 597-598: « Quapropter illam longe ante omnes Angelicos Spiritus, cunctosque Sanctos caelestium omnium charismatum copia de thesauro divinitatis deprompta ita mirifice cumulavit, ut ipsa ab  omni prorsus peccati labe semper libera, ac tota pulchra et perfecta, eam innocentiae ac sanctitatis plenitudinem prae se ferret, qua maior sub Deo nullatenus intelligitur, et quam praeter Deum nemo  assequi  cogitando  potest ».
    Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 635: « Nullum igitur dubium est Mariam Sanctissimam dignitate sua omnes res creatas excellere itemque super omnes post Filium suum obtinere primatum ».
    Cf. S. bonaventura, In III Sent., d. 9, a. 1, q. 3, in sol. [ed. Quaracchi III, 206 a]: « Quoniam [Maria] excellentissimum nomen habet, ita quod excellentius purae creaturae convenire non potest, ideo non tantum debetur ei honor duliae, sed hyperduliae … Ex hoc enim quod Mater Dei est, praelata est ceteris creaturis, et eam prae ceteris decens est honorari et venerari ».
  35. Pius   VII,  Breve  Quod   divino,  24  ian. 1806  [Documentos  marianos,  n.  235]:   « Quod divino afflata spiritu beatissima ac gloriosa Dei Genetrix Virgo Maria de se ipsa praenuntiavit generationes omnes beatam illam nuncupaturas, id sane non modo prioribus Ecclesiae saeculis impletum novimus, cum toto terrarum orbe ad eius honorem templa aedificata fuerint,  atque arae  erectae,   verum  etiam   aucta   quotidie   magis  fidelium  pietate   erga   amantissimam   Parentem nostram, ac gratiarum omnium dispensatricem, maiori semper devotionis ardore, alia aliis successerint  monumenta  pietatis et quaedam praesertim  loca  inscrutabili  Dei  consilio,  constituta sint, in quibus peculiari beatae Virginis intercessione quaedam mira veniunt, quae in aliis
    aeque contigisse novimus ».
    Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Fulgens corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS 45 (1953) p. 582: « … inde ab antiquissima Ecclesiae aetate, hoc doctrinae caput [scilicet doctrina de cultu B. V. Mariae] cotidie magis inclaruit, ac cotidie latius viguit cum apud sacros Pastores, turn in mente ani-moque christianae plebis ».
    Cf. Decreta conc. nicaeni II et conc. trid. de sacris imaginibus sive Christi sive « intemeratae dominae nostrae sanctae Dei genitricis », sive sanctorum in genere: « honos qui eis exhibetur, refertur ad prototypa, quae illae repraesentant … » [Denz. 302, 986].
  36. benedictus XIV, Bulla aurea Gloriosae Dominae, 27 sept.  1748  [Documentos Marianos, n.  210]:   « Gloriosae Dominae, Dei  Genitricis Mariae cultum ac venerationem, Dei  manifests voluntate ac veraci  semper Ecclesiae spiritu, magnopere commendari, nec minus iuste quam fructuose eidem a fidelibus exhiberi,  adeo manifestum esse non dubitamus,  ut ad  christianorum corda religiose devotionis studio erga eam inflammanda apostolicae adhortationes Nostrae superfmae  propemodum fore videantur. Sicut enim omnipotens Deus hanc  virginem electam ex millibus, et  ad ineffabilem  divinae maternitatis dignitatem Angelo nuntiante evectam,  gratiae suae donis abundantius prae ceteris omnibus puris creaturis replevit, ac splendidissimis gloriae coronis super alia omnia manuum suarum opera decoravit;  sic etiam Catholica Ecclesia, Sancti  Spiritus magisterio edocta, eamdem, et tamquam Domini ac Redemptoris sui Parentem caelitus ac terrae Reginam impensissimis obsequiis cplere, et tamquam amantissimam Matrem, extrema, Sponsi sui morientis voce sibi relictam, filialis pietatis affectuprosequi studiosissime semper professa est ».
    leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Augustissimae Virginis Mariae, 12 sept. 1897: Acta Leonis XIII, XVII, p. 285: « Augustissimae Virginis Mariae foveri assidue cultum et contentiore quotidie studio promoveri quisque perspiciet, qui secum reputaverit, quam excelso dignitatis et gloriae fastigio Deus ipsam collocavit ».
    Pius XII, Nuntius Radioph. Christifidelibus datus ob conventum marialem e tota Argentina in urbe Luján coadunatum: AAS 39 (1947) p. 628: « El culto a la Madre de Dios, por Ella misma profetizado cuando anunció: “Beatam me dicent omnes generationes”, es un elemento fundamental en la vida cristiana…Honremosla, pues, reconociendo el brillo sin par de su hermosura, los primores da su bondad y lo irresistible de su poder; por la excelsitud de sus virtudes y por la dignidad incomparable de su misión, reverenciémosla proclamando su grandeza, manifestándole nuestro respeto y pidiéndole su intercesión; filnalmente, imitémosla sin cejar en tan noble empeño … ».
    Pius XII, Epist. Apost. Ex hoc, 25 mart. 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 717: « “Ex hoc, ut ait Sarictus Bonaventura, quod Virgo Maria effecta est Dei Mater, est effecta Mater omnium creaturarum”; idcirco, tantae Parenti dicata, plurima per orbem surgunt Templa, e quibus praecipua ac maiore Christifidelium concursu commendata, e Romanorum Pontificum instituto po-tiore dignitate solent decorari ».
    ioannes XXIII, La presenza dell’insegnamento di Cristo e del patrocinio di Maria nel cuore di ogni fedele: L’Oss. Rom., 18 aug. 1960: « Accanto a Gesu la Madre sua Maria. AH’indomani della celebrazione della celebrità dell’Assunta, il sentimento filiale si rivolge con fiducia ed affetto verso tanta Madre, per la quale i cattolici nutrono la piu alta e sentita devozione. Qualcuno, già in passato, ha voluto criticare questo sentimento, quasi si trattasse di un’ado-razione, che e dovuta a Dio solo. E’ chiaro invece che i cattolici venerano la Madre di Gesii con tutto il loro entusiasmo, ben sapendo che, a causa delle sue prerogative, del suo insigne privilegio d’essere la Madre del Figlio di Dio fatto Uomo, dei doni dal Signore ricevuti e della sua potenza d’intercessione, Ella è la creatura che sulla terra più si avvicina a Dio… Noi dunque portiamo sempre Gesu nel cuore: fonte di fortezza, di consolazione, di ogni conforto. Del pari abbiamo con noi sempre rimmagine di Maria: e tanta Madre aiuta ogni suo figlio nei vari momenti della esistenza; sorregge a raggiungere bene la meta che a ciasctino è assegnata quaggiù di conoscere, cio è amare, servire il Signore; di praticare le virtù della carità e della pazienza, segnatamente durante le prove che la vita ci offre, sempre con-tinuando nella sicurezza dei beni eterni. Cosi, questo Paugurio del Padre comune delle anime, Gesu e Maria ci salvino e ci benedicano sempre! ».
  37. PIUS XII, Nuntius Radioph. Iis qui interfuerunt conventui international!, mariologico-mariano Romae habito: AAS 46 (1954) p. 679: « Ita etiam haec disciplina [mariologica] recta ilia media via procedere poterit, qua et ab omni falsa et immodica veritatis superlatione saveat et ab illis se segreget, qui vano quodam agitantur timore, ne Beatissimae Virgin! plus aequo concedant aut, ut non raro dictitant, Matre honorata et pie invocata, ipsi Divino Re-demptori aliquid honoris et fiduciae detrahant »
    PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 637: « In his tamen aliisque quaestionibus ad Beatam Virginem spectantibus, curent theologi ac divini verbi praecones ut quasdam e recto itinere aberrationes devitent, ne in duplicis generis errores inducantur; caveant nempe et sententias fundamento carentes ac veritatem quadam ver-borum superlatione excedentes, et nimiam mentis angustiam in singulari ilia, omnino excelsa, iinmo fere divina Deiparae dignitate consideranda, quam quidem Doctor Angelicus eidem agno-scendam esse docet “ex bono infinito quod est Deus”».
  38. PIUS XII, Nuntius Radioph. Iis qui interfuerunt conventui international!, mariologico-mariano Romae habito: AAS 46 (1954) p. 679: « Ita etiam haec disciplina [mariologica] recta ilia media via procedere poterit, qua et ab omni falsa et immodica veritatis superlatione saveat et ab illis se segreget, qui vano quodam agitantur timore, ne Beatissimae Virgin! plus aequo concedant aut, ut non raro dictitant, Matre honorata et pie invocata, ipsi Divino Re-demptori aliquid honoris et fiduciae detrahant »
    PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 637: « In his tamen aliisque quaestionibus ad Beatam Virginem spectantibus, curent theologi ac divini verbi praecones ut quasdam e recto itinere aberrationes devitent, ne in duplicis generis errores inducantur; caveant nempe et sententias fundamento carentes ac veritatem quadam ver-borum superlatione excedentes, et nimiam mentis angustiam in singulari ilia, omnino excelsa, iinmo fere divina Deiparae dignitate consideranda, quam quidem Doctor Angelicus eidem agno-scendam esse docet “ex bono infinito quod est Deus”».
  39. S. PIUS X, Litt. Encycl. Ad diem ilium, 2 febr. 1904: Acta Pii X, pp.  155-156:  « Nullus equidem honor Mariae optabilior, nullus iucundior quam ut noscamus rite et amemus Iesum Sint  igitur  fidelium  celebritates   in templis, sint festi apparatus, sint laetitiae civium; quae res omnes non mediocres usus afferunt ad pietatem fovendam. Verumtamen nisi his voluntas animi  accedat, formas habebimus, quae speciem  tan turn  offerant  religionis. Has Virgo quum videat, iusta reprehensione Christi verbis in nos utetur: “Populus his labiis me honorat; cor autem eorum longe est a me”. Nam ea demum est germana adversus Deiparentem  religio,  quae  profluat   animo… Quapropter hoc quisque persuasum habeat: si pietas, quam in Virginem beatissimam quis profitetur, non eum a peccato retinet, vel pravos emendandi mores consilium non indit, fucatam esse pietatem ac fallacem, utpote quae proprio nativoque careat fructu…Quamvis autem deceat filios Matris sanctissimae nullam praeterire  laudem quin imitentur; illas tamen Eiusdem virtutes ipsos fideles assequi prae ceteris desideramus, quae principes sunt ac veluti nervi atque artus christianae sapientiae:  fidem inquimus, spem et caritatem in Deum atque homines … ».
    PIUS XII, Allocutio pro canonizatione Beati Ludovici de Montfort, 21 iul. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) p. 413: « La vraie dévotion, ceile de la tradition, celle de l’Eglise, celle, dirions-Nous, du bon sens chrétien et catholique, tend essentiellement vers 1′union à Jésus, sous la conduite de Marie ».
    ioannes XXIII, Epist. ad Card. Mimmi, 2 oct. 1960: AAS 52 (1960) p. 498: « Qui autem pia Deiparae Virginis tutela confidunt, et cum ipsa volunt claros referre triumphos, probe necesse est, ipsius decorentur virtutibus et matcrnis dotibus utpote filii sincerae indolis emineant. Nam ita hortatur illa suos, ut currant in odorem unguentorum suorum [Cant. 1, 3]: “Ego mater pulchrae dilectionis et timoris et agnitionis et sanctae spei … In me omnis spes vitae et virtutis “».
    Cf. S. ambrosius, De virginibus, lib. II, c. 2, n. 15: PL 16, 210 B: « Talis enim fuit Maria, ut eius unious vita, omnium sit disciplina ».
    S. bon a ventura, Sermo I De Purificatione [Opera IX, 638 A]: « Verum est quod Virgo gloriosa perfectissime habuit omnes virtutes … ».
  40. S.  augustinus, De sancta  virginitate,  c.  3:  PL 40,  398.
  41. petrus moghila in sua Confessione scribit: « De beatissima Virgine quae cum tantum mysterium digna facta sit persolvere, omnes orthodoxi ipsam honore debito ac reverentia pro­ sequi tenentur »  [cf. gordillo M., Mariologia Orientalis, Romae 1954, p. 259].
    Aethiopes confitentur « testante Sacra Scriptura Deiparam honorandam esse » [Ibid., p. 261]. Certissimum est quod cultus Beatissimae Virginis in Oriente christiano longe superat cultum aliorum Sanctorum, etsi non adhibetur terminus « hyperdulia ».
  42. leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Fidentem piumque, 20 sept. 1896: Acta Leonis XIII, XVI, p. 287.
    leo XIII misit Congressui Mariano Liburnensi poema:
    « Virgine  favente,  fiat  unum  ovile!
    Auspicium felix!  Orientis personal oras;
    Vox lapsa e caelo, personat occiduas:
    Una fides Christi, Pastor regat unus ovile,
    Disperses gentes colligat unus amor.
    Virgo, fave: errantes, ah! lumine mater amico
    Respice, et Unigenae  iunge benigna tuo ».
    [Cf. Documentos  Marianos,  n.  423].
    Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Ecclesiam Dei, 12 nov. 1923: AAS 15 (1923) p. 581: « Alterum uni­tatis reconciliandae vinculum cum Orientalibus Slavis in eorum singulari studio erga magnam Dei Matrem Virginem ac pietate continetur, eos ab haereticis compluribus seiungens, nobisque efficiens propiores ».